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Nigeria - Description

#1
(This post was last modified: 01-26-2019, 10:37 AM by Kalel1459.)

The “Heart of Africa” is easily the most populous and most recognized country in the entire continent. As a melting pot of over 300 tribes and more than 520 different languages (nine are extinct). Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country and consists of 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory, where the National capital is situated.
Currently led by President Muhammadu Buhari, Nigeria was declared a distinct power on the 1st of October in 1960 and made a Republic on the 1st of October, 1963 after the successful amalgamation of its southern and northern parts in 1914. 
Nigeria boasts the 65th largest population density of 215km2 (556.8/mile2), and the 2018 estimate put the total GDP(PPP) of the country at $1.169 trillion and the GDP per capita to $6,030, a total nominal GDP of $397.472 billion and $2,050 nominal GDP per capita.
Unfortunately, the income or wealth distribution of the nation, represented by a measure of statistical dispersion – the Gini ratio – is 43.0, which is medium at best (at 2010). Worse, is the Human Development Index which is relatively low at 0.532 (2017 estimate).  
AREA
The Federal Republic of Nigeria, has an area of 923,769 square kilometers (made up of 909,890 square kilometers of land area and 13,879 square kilometers of water area), is situated between 3° and 14° East Longitude and 4° and 14° North Latitude. The distance across the country is about 767 kilometers from East to West, and 1,605 kilometers from North to South. The country is bordered on the west by the Republics of Benin and Niger; on the east by the Republic of Cameroon; on the north by Niger and Chad Republics and on the south by the Gulf of Guinea.
Nigeria is also favored with advantageous and varied climatic conditions. The climate is equatorial and semi-equatorial in nature, characterized by high humidity and substantial rainfall. There are two seasons – the wet and dry seasons. The wet season lasts from April to October, while the dry season lasts from November through March.
River Niger (Africa’s third longest River) upsurges from the mountains to the east of Sierra Leone and flows for the first two-thirds of its 4,184 kilometers’ length outside Nigeria before entering the country from the north-west. It accepts the River Benue (which rises from the Republic of Cameroon) at Lokoja and then flows for about 547 kilometers into the Atlantic Ocean. River Niger has as its tributaries, the Sokoto, Kaduna and Anambra Rivers while River Benue receives Katsina-Ala and Gongola Rivers. This second great drainage system runs from the central plateau into Yobe River and eventually empties itself into Lake Chad.  Other important river systems include Benin, Escravos, Sombreiro, Bonny, Cross River, Imo, Ogun and Osun.

CLIMATE 
Just like most of West Africa, Nigeria's climate is categorized by robust latitudinal sectors, predictably becoming decreasingly humid as one moves north from the coast. In Nigeria, the significant compass for the weather is rainfall, with some areas experiencing obvious fluctuation between the wet and dry seasons. Two air masses control rainfall--moist northward moving maritime air coming from the Atlantic Ocean and dry continental air coming south from the African landmass. Topographic relief plays a significant role in local climate only around the Jos Plateau and along the eastern border highlands.  
The consistency of drought phases has been among the most noteworthy aspects of Nigerian climate of late, predominantly in the regions in the north. Experts esteem the twentieth century among the driest cycles of the last few centuries; the well-publicized droughts of the 1970s and 1980s were only the latest of several significant such episodes to affect West Africa in this century. More than two of these droughts have severely affected large areas of northern Nigeria and the Sahel region farther north. 
These drought periods are indications of the great variability of climate across tropical Africa, the most serious effects of which are usually felt at the drier margins of agricultural zones or in the regions occupied mainly by pastoral groups.  Temperatures throughout Nigeria are normally high; diurnal variations are more distinct than seasonal ones. Highest temperatures occur during the dry season; rains moderate afternoon highs during the wet season. Although average temperatures vary little from coastal to inland areas, inland areas, especially in the northeast, have superior extremes. There, temperature reaches its highest peak before the onset of the rains and drop to its lowest level during an intrusion of cool air from the north from December to February. 
Delta, Rivers and the southern/coastal states of Nigeria experience rainy seasons that usually begins in February or March. During this period, the moist Atlantic air, known as the southwest monsoon, invades the country and precedes the beginning of the rains which is usually marked by the incidence of high winds and heavy but scattered storms. The dispersed value of this storm rainfall is especially noticeable in the north in dry years, when rain may be lavish in some small areas while other adjoining places are completely dry. 
By April or early May, in most years, the rainy season is extended throughout most of the area south of the Niger and Benue river valleys. Farther north, it is usually June or July before the rains really commence. The peak of the rainy season occurs through most of northern Nigeria in August, when air from the Atlantic covers the entire country. In southern regions, this period marks the August dip in precipitation. Although seldom completely dry, this dip in rainfall, which is particularly marked in the southwest, can be beneficial agriculturally, because it allows a short-lived dry period for grain harvesting.  
From September through November, the northeast trade winds generally bring a season of clear skies, moderate temperatures, and lower humidity for most of the country. From December through February, however, the northeast trade winds blow strongly and often bring with them a load of fine dust from the Sahara. These dust-laden winds, known locally as the harmattan, often appears as a dense fog and covers everything with a layer of fine particles. The harmattan is more common in the north but affects the entire country except for a narrow strip along the southwest coast. An occasional strong harmattan, however, can sweep as far southern zone of the country, providing relief from high humidity and pushing clouds of dust out to sea. Given this climatological cycle and the size of the country, there is a considerable range in total annual rainfall across Nigeria, both from south to north and, in some regions, from east to west. The greatest total precipitation is generally in the southeast, along the coastal area of Bonny and east of Calabar, where means annual rainfall is more than 4,000 millimeters. 
Most of the rest of the southeast receives between 2,000 and 3,000 millimeters of rain per year, and the southwest (lying farther north) receives lower total rainfall, generally between 1,250 and 2,500 millimeters per year. Moving north from Ibadan, mean annual rainfall in the west North of Kaduna, through the northern Guinea savanna and then the Sudan savanna zones, the total rainfall and the length of the rainy season decline steadily. The Guinea savanna starts in the middle belt, or southern part of northern Nigeria. It is distinguished from the Sudan savanna because it has more trees whereas the Sudan few trees and rainy seasons decline correspondingly in length as one moves northwards.   
POPULATION
The constitution of Nigeria mandates the National Population Commission (NPOPC) to carry out population census in the country and provide accurate and reliable census results. The primary objective of the census results is to assist the country in knowing as accurate and reliable as possible within the constraints, the population size, its composition and distribution. The population figures and characteristics arising out of census help the country to meet its developmental, administrative and political needs and provide inputs while planning for improving the quality of life of our country men and women. Accordingly, the population and housing census 2006 was carried out from the 21st to 25th March, 2006 and extended by two days to facilitate enumeration of population on a de-facto basis. It was followed by the post Enumeration Survey (PES) in June, 2006. 
This came after years of multiple controversies regarding the census in Nigeria and yielded results that showed a population increase from the 88,992,220 persons gotten from the 1991 attempt at a national census to 140,431,790 persons with a slightly equal increase in both the population of men and women.
The 2017 estimate of Nigeria’s Population by the National Population commission admits that the population density of Nigeria to be 190,886,311 persons.

Nigeria is made up of political entities that have a part of the sovereignty enjoyed by the federal government. A federal agreement binds the 36 entities called states excluding the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) which is not a state and under the direct control of the federal government. The country Nigeria is also divided into 774 Local Government Areas. Each of these States have the power to ratify the provisions of the constitution that governs Nigeria.
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#2
(This post was last modified: 01-26-2019, 10:46 AM by Oti Promise.)

I think the much ethnic group is a major factor for our disunity.... 
Most progressing countries in the world have fesee ethnic groups

Nice thread... Helped  a Lot
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#3
(This post was last modified: 01-26-2019, 11:58 AM by Kalel1459.)

ABIA STATE
Covering a total area of 4900 square kilometers (per the office of the Surveyor-General) and 6,320 square kilometers according to many other sources. The state capital ‘Umuahia’ is 513 kilometers from the nation’s capital and got its name from the amalgamation of the first letters of the state’s most densely populated regions – Aba, Bende, Isuikwuato and Afikpo. The 2006 population census recorded a population density of 450 per square kilometer and 2,845,380 persons in the state, a slight increase from the 2,338,487 persons recorded in the 1991 census.
‘Oha Chineke (God’s Own State)’ boasts a GDP (PPP) of $18.69 billion and $3,003 Per Capita as at 2007. Also, the state has the Ninth ranked Human Development Index value in the country at 0.541. Understandably so, as oil and gas production subsidizes a significant part of the state’s GDP (about 39%). This is relatively impressive as the home-based oil companies have had difficulties in soliciting for external support for the provision of funds for the exploitation of the reported 50 marginal oil fields available.
The manufacturing Sector of the state contributes about 2% of the total GDP with the central location of Industrialization, Aba, investing in a wide range of products from technology to textiles, pharmaceuticals, soap, plastics and cement among other things.
Abia State has experienced one of the biggest increases in rainfall across the federation with an average annual rainfall of 125.3 millimeters as at 2005 increasing to 1,980.1 millimeters by 2009, and now records an annual rainfall of 2,400 millimeters. The important rivers are the Rivers Imo and Aba which flow through Akwa Ibom State into the Atlantic. It is essentially a low-lying tropical rainforest with some palm-oil brush, high plains and wooden savanna.
Abia State borders 17 local government areas divided into 3 zones – Abia Central, Abia North and Abia South. It is predominantly occupied by the Igbo ethnic group with other tribes like the Aros and Ngwas forming the minority.

ADAMAWA STATE
Formerly Gongola State, Adamawa State was the result of the extraction of Taraba State from Gongola State. Adamawa State covers a total area of 38,700 square kilometers and a population of 3,178,950 persons from the 2006 population census records. The capital of Adamawa State is Yola and it has four administrative divisions – Adamawa, Ganye, Mubi and Numan.
Geographically, Adamawa is one of Nigeria’s largest States and is bordered by Borno, Gombe and Taraba States as well as a national border with Cameroon.
The ‘Land of Beauty’ is currently ruled by Governor Bindo Jubrilla of the All Progressive Congress, and together with the State’s senators and representatives, work towards the GDP of the state which was last recorded to be about $4.58 billion and $1,417 per capita. Unfortunately, the history of security of the state is marred by a state of emergency call by President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan on May 14, 2013 due to the activities of Boko Haram.
The major source of Income for the people in Adamawa is agriculturally inclined, predictably so, due to their vegetative zones – Sub-Sudan and Northern Guinea Savannah zones. The cash crops they focus on are groundnuts and cotton. The food crops they focus on are maize, yam, cassava, guinea corn, millet and rice. Some residents who live beside rivers do a lot of fishing and those further in-land called Fulanis are Cattle-rearers.
Adamawa State plays host to the American University of Nigeria in Yola, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola and is the home of two very famous indigenous religious headquarters – the Church of the Brethren in Nigeria (EYN Church) with its headquarters in Mubi, the northern zone of the state, and the Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN Church) with headquarters in Numan in the southern zone of the state. The Lutheran Church of Christ in Nigeria (LCCN Church) was created by Dutch missionaries in Numan at 1913. The Church of the Brethren in Nigeria (EYN church) was established by missionaries from America in Garkida Gombi Local Government of the state in March, 1923.

AKWA IBOM STATE
‘The Land of Promise’ is presently the country’s most active state when it comes to the production of crude oil and gas. The state capital, Uyo, is where one of, if not the best ultramodern and world class stadium in the federation is situated. The state also boasts the famous Ibom E-Library, a top tier knowledge sharing center, two airports and an advanced seaport. The people bearing the demonym - ‘Akwa Ibomite’ are known for their colorful tradition best epitomized by their well-known dancers and are mostly Christian. Also, the state is home to different tribes including – the Ibibios, the Annangs, Oron tribes, Eket tribes and the Obolo tribes. Their choice of language is usually among the various dialects of the Efik-Ibibio language.
The state covers a land area of about 7,081 square kilometers, and with a population density of 770 per square kilometer, it ranks 15th in the country in population standings with 5,450,758 persons as of 2016. It is located in the coastal southern part of the country called the Niger Delta, lying between latitudes 4°32′N and 5°33′N, and longitudes 7°25′E and 8°25′E. The state is located in the South-South geopolitical zone, and is bordered on the east by Cross River State , on the west by Rivers State and Abia State , and on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and the southernmost tip of Cross River State.
Despite the homogeneity, no central government existed among the people of what is now Akwa Ibom State prior to theBritish invasion in 1904. Instead, the Annang , Oron, Efik , Ibonos and Ibibio were all autonomous groups.
Although several Scottish missionaries arrived in Calabar in 1848, and Ibono in 1887, the British did not firmly establish control of the area until 1904. In that year, the Enyong Division was created encompassing the area of the current state of Akwa Ibom, with headquarters at Ikot Ekpene , an Annang city described by the noted Africanist Kaanan Nair, as the cultural and political capital of Annang and Ibibio. 
The creation of Enyong Division for the first time allowed the numerous ethnic groups to come together. This further provided a venue for the creation of the Ibibio Welfare Union, later renamed Ibibio State Union. This social organization was first organized as a local development and improvement forum for educated persons and groups who were shut out from the colonial administration in 1929. Nonetheless, some historians have wrongly pointed to the union to buttress their argument about the homogeneity of groups in the area. The Obolo Union, comprising Ibono and Andoni stock, was another strong socioeconomic and cultural organization that thrived in the region. The Ibono people have fought wars to maintain their unique identity and territory in the region more than any other group.
When Akwa Ibom state was created in 1987, Uyo was chosen as the state capital to spread development to all regions of the state.
The state has a yearly GDP of $11.18 billion and an average of $2,779 per capita recorded and is ranked 3rd in the federation with an HDI value of 0.564 as at 2016. Under the current leadership of Governor Udom Gabriel Emmanuel.

ANAMBRA STATE
‘The Light of The Nation’ is not just a theme in this case as Anambra is factually the state with the lowest poverty rate in Nigeria and predictably so with a GDP of $11.83 billion and $1.615 per capita, the state has successfully harnessed the numerous mineral resources available to it – resources including natural gas, bauxite, crude oil and ceramic – to a reasonable extent. Similarly, they have also taken advantage of the natural resources available in fishery and farming (both animal husbandry and pasturing as well as planting crops).
The state is surrounded by Delta State to the west, Imo State and Rivers State to the south, Enugu State to the east, and Kogi State to the north. The name of the state is subject for debate as some claim that it was derived from the Anambra River (Omambala) which flows through the area and is a tributary of the River Niger. Some others claim Its name was inspired by one of its Northern and riverine clans Anam but merged with "branch". The colonialists who travelled from the present day Anambra region to present Northern Nigeria often described where they were coming from as "Anam branch".  Nevertheless, with a population of 4,177,828 persons by the time the 2006 population census took place over a land area of 4,865 square kilometers, Anambra has always been a hub for Nigerians. This makes Anambra is the eighth-most populated state in the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the second-most densely populated state in Nigeria after Lagos State . The stretch of more than 45 km between the towns of Oba and Amorka contains a cluster of numerous thickly populated villages and small towns, giving the area an estimated average density of 1,500–2,000 persons per square kilometre. Certainly, this fact is helped by the presence of the eminent port city ‘Onitsha’, which has attracted commercial activity since the times of old and is the largest urban area in the state. The indigenous ethnic groups in Anambra state are the Igbo (98% of population) and a small population of Igala (2% of the population), who live mainly in the north-western part of the state. 
Given decades of neglect of infrastructure and bad governance, the shift in human migration has posed problems for the state. Infrastructure improvements, both physical and social, have lagged behind the growth in population. There are problems in environmental sanitation, erosion control, and provision of social services. Major cities have become characterized by inadequate and deteriorated road networks and walkways, unregulated building patterns, poor sanitation, uncontrolled street trading, mountains of garbage, and chaotic transport systems, creating congestion, noise pollution, and overcrowding.
The process of urbanization is fairly contributed by population growth, immigration, migration, and infrastructure initiatives like good road, water, power, and gardens, resulting in the growth of villages into towns, town into cities and cities into metros. To have ecologically feasible development, planning requires an understanding of the growth dynamics. There is a fear that if too many people leave the villages, only the aged men and women will be left to farm. This pattern has been seen in Amesi, Akpo, and Achina towns in Aguata local government area. They have been important in the production of yam, Cocoyam, and cassava through consistent agriculture, but such activities have suffered due to the out-migration of youth to the urban centres. There has been both food scarcity in the region and over-population in urban areas.
The government of Peter Obi , with the assistance of the UN-HABITAT, produced 20-year structural plans (2009–2028) for three major cities in the State: Onitsha , Nnewi and Awka (the Capital Territory of Anambra), to restore urban planning and guide their growth into the future, thus becoming the first state in Nigeria to adopt Structural Plans for its cities. With effective implementation, it should systematically grow as a major economic center in Nigeria and West Africa.
The plans contain policies and proposals for land use, city beautification, road infrastructure, industrial development, housing, waste disposal, water supply and health and educational facilities to turn the cities into successful urban areas that can generate employment and wealth, and provide high living standards for their residents. 
Anambra is not short of unique tourist locations like the Agulu Crocodile Lake is located along Awka road in Agulu, Anaocha Local Government Area of the state. A potential tourist site, it is home to an estimated three hundred crocodiles and water turtles and fishing in the lake is forbidden. Legend says that these crocodiles were instrumental in delivering the town from enemy soldiers during the Nigerian civil war. It is believed that these sacred crocodiles and turtles transformed themselves into beautiful ladies and lured the soldiers unawares into the lake, where they disappeared without trace. At noon the crocodiles and the turtles appear at the banks of the lake to take in sunlight. Other places of Interest are the Ogbunike caves, Igbo Ukwu Museum and the Niger Bridge among others.

BAUCHI
Governed by the laws of Sharia since 2001, the ‘Pearl of Tourism’ is named after its capital city of same name and is home to the Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University and the Bauchi State University and Federal Polytechnic, both of which are in Bauchi. Governor Mohammed Abdullahi Abubakar is the joint-sovereign over the 49,119 square kilometers of land that is home to a population of 4,653,066 persons and a population density of 95 per square kilometers that is Bauchi State with the Federal Government, representing about 5.3% of Nigeria’s total land mass and is located between latitudes 9° 3' and 12° 3' north and longitudes 8° 50' and 11° east. The state is bordered by seven states, Kano and Jigawa to the north, Taraba and Plateau to the south, Gombe and Yobe to the east and Kaduna to the west.
As at 2007, Bauchi State recorded a GDP (PPP) of $4.71 billion and $983 per capita. Bauchi state was also logged with an HDI value of 0.323, the 34th tier of the 36 states of the federation with respect to Human Development. The main occupations of the residents of the state is agriculture due to the geography of the area. In addition to rainfall, Bauchi state is watered by a number of rivers. They include the Gongola and Jama'are rivers. The Gongola River crosses Bauchi state in Tafawa Balewa Local Government Area in the south and in Kirfi and Alkaleri Local Government Areas in the eastern part of the state, while the Jama’are River cuts across a number of Local Government Areas in the northern part of the state. Moreover, a substantial part of the Hadeja-Jama'are River basin lies in Bauchi state, which along with various fadama (floodplain) areas in the state provides suitable land for agricultural activities. These are further supported by the number of dams meant for irrigation and other purposes. These include the Gubi and Tilde-Fulani dams. There also lakes such as the Maladumba Lake in Misau Local Government Area that further provide the necessary conditions to support agriculture. 
Bauchi state is one of the states in the northern part of Nigeria that span two distinctive vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan savannah and the Sahel savannah. The Sudan savannah type of vegetation covers the southern part of the state. Here, the vegetation gets richer and richer towards the south, especially along water sources or rivers , but generally the vegetation is less uniform and grasses are shorter than what grows even farther south, that is, in the forest zone of the middle belt.
The Sahel type of savannah, also known as semi-desert vegetation, becomes manifest from the middle of the state as one moves from the state's south to its north. This type of vegetation comprises isolated stands of thorny shrubs. On the other hand, the southwestern part of the state is mountainous as a result of the continuation of the Jos Plateau , while the northern part is generally sandy.
The vegetation types as described above are conditioned by the climatic factors, which in turn determine the amount of rainfall received in the area. For instance, the rainfall in Bauchi state ranges between 1,300 millimetres (51 in) per annum in the south and only 700 millimetres (28 in) per annum in the extreme north. This pattern is because in the West Africa sub-region, rains generally come from the south as they are carried by the southwesterlies. There is therefore a progressive dryness towards the north, culminating in the desert condition in the far north. So also is the case in Bauchi state.
Consequently, rains start earlier in the southern part of the state, where rain is heaviest and lasts longer. Here the rains start in April with the highest record amount of 1,300 millimetres (51 in) per annum. In contrast, the northern part of the state receives the rains late, usually around June or July, and records the highest amount of 700 millimetres (28 in) per annum. In the same vein, the weather experienced in the south and the north varies considerably. While it is humidly hot during the early part of the rainy season in the south, the hot, dry and dusty weather lingers up north. 
Bauchi State has a total of 55 tribal groups in which Gerawa, Sayawa, Jarawa, Kirfawa, Turawa Bolewa, Karekare, Kanuri, Fa'awa, Butawa, Warjawa, Zulawa, Boyawa MBadawa, Hausa and Fulani are the main tribes. This means that they have backgrounds, occupational patterns, beliefs and many other things that form part of the existence of the people of the state.
There are cultural similarities in the people's language, occupational practices, festivals , dress and there is a high degree of ethnic interaction especially in marriage and economic existence. Some of the ethnic groups have joking relationships that exist between them, e.g. Fulani and Kanuri, Jarawa and Sayawa, etc.

BAYELSA STATE
Like Abia State, the name of this state was derived from the initial letters of the major Local Government Areas that make up the state – Brass LGA (BALGA), Yenagoa (YELGA) and Sagbama (SALGA) – BA + YEL + SA. While it might boast the largest crude oil and gas deposits in the federation, most ‘Bayelsans’ live in poverty. 
As such, they are chiefly rural dwellers due to the topography and absence of satisfactory transportation network, health services, education or other infrastructure due to periods of disregard by the central governments, state governments, and petroleum prospecting companies. This has been a large problem in the state since its creation; successive state governments have not been able to address and repair the issue. The state, as a result, has an almost non-existent commerce as evidenced by the unimpressive GDP of $4.34 billion and $2,484 per capita which is supplied by its mineral resources. 
Successive state governments have embarked on industrial projects (even venturing into the oil and gas sector) and poverty-alleviation programs to reverse this situation. Some argue that there is nothing on ground to show for huge sums of money spent for development by successive and present state governments. Nevertheless, the local population engage in fishing on a subsistence and commercial level. The Bayelsa State government is otherwise the main employer in the state.
Bayelsa State has about 9,059 square kilometers of land area and a population of 1,704,515 persons from the 2006 census exercise. Bayelsa has a riverine and estuarine setting. Many communities are almost (and in some cases) completely surrounded by water, making them inaccessible by road. The state is home to the Edumanom Forest Reserve , in June 2008 the last known site for chimpanzees in the Niger Delta. The main language spoken is Ijaw with dialects such as Kolukuma, Mein, Bomu, Nembe , Epie-Atisa, and Ogbia. Like the rest of Nigeria, English is the official language. The state was formed in 1996 from part of Rivers State and is thus one of the newest states of the Nigerian federation with Yenegoa as the capital.
Other important cities besides Yenagoa include Akassa, Lobia, Amassoma (the home of the Niger Delta University ), Eniwari, Ekeremor, Aliebiri, Peretoru, Twon-Brass, Kaiama, Nembe, Odi, Ogbia, Okpoama Brass, Oporoma, Otuan, Sagbama , Olugbobiri, Peremabiri, and Swali.

BENUE STATE
Benue State is the nation's acclaimed food basket because of its rich agricultural produce which include Yam, Rice, Beans, Cassava , Sweet-potato , Maize, Soybean , Sorghum, Millet, Sesame , cocoyam etc. The state accounts for over 70% of Nigeria's Soybean production. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, engaging over 75% of the state farming population. The State also boasts of one of the longest stretches of river systems in the country with great potential for a viable fishing industry, dry season farming through irrigation and for an inland water highway. 
As if not enough, Benue State is also blessed with plentiful mineral resources. These resources are distributed in the Local Government Areas of the state. Of these mineral resources, only Limestone at Tse-Kucha near Gboko and Kaolinite at Otukpo are being commercially exploited. Other mineral deposits include Baryte, Gypsum, Feldspar, Wolframite, Kaolinite, mineral salts and Gemstone etc.
Based on Köppen climate classification, Benue State lies within the AW climate and experiences two distinct seasons, the Wet season and the Dry season . The rainy season lasts from April to October with annual rainfall in the range of 100-200mm. The dry season begins in November and ends in March. Temperatures fluctuate between 21 – 37 degrees Celsius in the year. The south-eastern part of the state adjoining the Obudu-Cameroun mountain range, however, has a cooler climate similar to that of Plateau State.
Much of Benue State falls within the Benue Valley/trough which is believed to be structurally developed. During the Tertiary and possibly the Interglacial periods of the Quaternary glaciation , the Benue and Niger Valleys, otherwise known as the Niger/Benue trough, were transgressed by the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, marine sediments form the do minant surface geology of much of Benue State.
Benue State lies within the lower river Benue trough in the middle belt region of Nigeria. Its geographic coordinates are longitude 7° 47' and 10° 0' East. Latitude 6° 25' and 8° 8' North; and shares boundaries with five other states namely: Nasarawa State to the north, Taraba State to the east, Cross-River State to the south, Enugu State to the south-west and Kogi State to the west. The state also shares a common boundary with the Republic of Cameroon on the south-east. Benue occupies a landmass of 34,059 square kilometres. The State which is in the has a total population of 4,253,641 in 2006 census , with an average population density of 99 persons per square kilometer. This makes Benue the 9th most populous state in Nigeria. 
However, the distribution of the population according to Local government areas shows marked duality. There are areas of low population density such as Guma, Gwer East, Ohimini, Katsina-Ala, Apa, Logo and Agatu, each with less than seventy persons per square kilometer, while Vandeikya , Okpokwu, Ogbadibo, Obi and Gboko have densities ranging from 140 persons to 200 persons per square kilometer. Makurdi LGA has over 380 person per square kilometer. The males are 49.8 percent of the total population while females constitute 50.2 percent.
Benue State region was depleted of its human population during the slave trade . It is largely rural, with scattered settlements mainly in tiny compounds or homesteads, whose population range from 630 people, most of whom are farmers. Urbanization in Benue State did not predate the colonial era. The few towns established during colonial rule remained very small(less than 30,000 people) up to the creation of Benue State in 1976.
Benue towns can be categorised into three groups. The first group consists of those with a population of 80,000 to 500,000 people. These include Makurdi , the State Capital, Gboko and Otukpo the "headquarters" of the two dominant ethnic groups (125,944 and 88,958 people respectively). The second group comprises towns with a population of between 20,000 and 50,000 people and includes Katsina-Ala , Zaki-Biam among others. These are all local government headquarters. The third category comprises towns with a population of 10,000 to 19,000 people and includes Vandeikya, Lessel, lhugh, Naka, Adoka, Aliade, Okpoga, lgumale, Oju, Utonkon, Ugbokolo, Wannune, Ugbokpo, Otukpa, Ugba and Korinya. 
Most of these towns are headquarters of recently created Local Government Areas and/or district headquarters or major market areas. Some of the headquarters of the newly created LGAs have populations of less than 10,000 people. Such places include Tse-Agberaba, Gbajimba, Buruku, Idekpa, Obagaji and Obarikeito. Apart from earth roads, schools, periodic markets and chemists(local drug stores), the rural areas are largely used for farming, relying on the urban centres for most of their urban needs. Benue State has no problem of capital city primacy. Rather, three towns stand out very clearly as important urban centres which together account for more than 70 per cent of the social amenities provided in the state and almost all the industrial establishments. These centres are Makurdi , Gboko and Otukpo . They are amongst the oldest towns in the state and are growing at a much faster rate than the smaller younger towns.
Makurdi doubles as the capital of the state and the headquarters of Makurdi LGA, while Gboko , Otukpo and Oju double as local government and ethnic headquarters (i.e. for Tiv, Idoma, and Igede). All the roads in the state radiate from these three centres. As an administrative unit, Benue State was first created on 3 February 1976. It was one of the seven states created by the military administration headed by General Murtala Mohammed , which increased the number of states in the country from 13 to 19. In 1991, its boundaries were re-adjusted with the creation of Kogi State. The new Benue State of today has twenty (23) local government areas, which are administered by local government councils.
Benue State possesses a rich and diverse cultural heritage which finds expression in colourful cloths, exotic masquerades, supplicated music and dances. Traditional dances from Benue State have won acclaim at national and international cultural festivals. The most popular of these dances include Ingyough, Ange, Anchanakupa, Swange and Ogirinya among others.
The socio-religious festivals of the people, colourful dances, dresses and songs are also of tourist value. The Alekwu ancestral festival of the Idoma people, for instance, is an occasion when the local people believe their ancestors re-established contact with the living in the form of masquerades.
The lgede-Agba is a Yam Festival, marked every year in September by the lgede people of Oju and Obi local government areas. Among the Tiv, the Tiv Day, marriage ceremonies and dance competitions (e.g. Swange dance) are often very colourful. Kwagh-hir is a very entertaining Tiv puppet show.
Social life in Benue State is also enriched by the availability of diverse recreational facilities. Apart from parks, beaches, dancing and masquerades mentioned above, the big hotels in Makurdi , Gboko and Otukpo are equipped with several indoor sporting facilities. There are golf clubs, the Makurdi Club, Railway Club, Police Club and Air Force Club, where, apart from the sale of drinks and snacks, various types of games are played.
There is a standard Arts Theatre, a modern Sports Complex which includes the Aper Aku Stadium , which has provisions for such games as tennis, basketball, volleyball and handball, an indoor sports hall and Olympic size swimming pool in Makurdi. A Smaller stadia exist in Gboko (J. S. Tarka Stadium), Katsina-Ala , Adikpo, Vandeikya and Otukpo. The BCC Lawn Tennis tournament attracts players from all over the country. Benue State has three teams in the professional soccer ranks, Lobi Stars F.C. in Division One, BCC Lions FC in Division Two, Mark mentors as the basketball premier league team.
The capital of Benue, Makurdi, can be reached by air, rail, road and water. The major northern route is the Makurdi – Lafia – Jos road. The southern routes are Makurdi – Otukpo – Enugu and Makurdi – Yandev – Adikpo – Calabar roads. Traffic from the west comes through Makurdi – Naka – Adoka Ankpa – Okene roads and from the east through Makurdi – Yandev – Katsina Ala – Wukari roads. These Makurdi Rail Bridge provides the only rail link between the northern and eastern parts of Nigeria.
Makurdi Airport has the Nigerian Airways and other private airlines provide air links between Makurdi and the rest of the country. The beautiful beaches of River Benue can be exploited to provide good sites for relaxation. The river itself provides tourist opportunities for boating angling and swimming. The Makurdi Moratorium that houses a variety of animals including some rare species also serves as another feature of tourist attraction.

BORNO STATE
An ancient empire, Borno remained autonomous even after the Nigerian independence in 1960, until the expansion of the number of states in Nigeria to 12 in 1967. Local government reform in 1976 further reduced the power of the emirs of the former dynasty, and by the time of Nigeria's return to civilian rule in 1979, the emirs' jurisdiction has been restricted solely to cultural and traditional affairs. The emirs still exist, and serve as advisers to the local government. Mala Kachallah was elected governor of Borno State in 1999 under the flagship of the then APP(All Peoples Party) later ANPP. Ali Modu Sheriff was elected governor of Borno State in Nigeria in April 2003. He is a member of the All Nigeria People's Party (ANPP). Ali Sheriff was the first governor in Borno state to win the seat two consecutive times.
Before then, the Borno Emirate was an example of the endurance of traditional political institutions in some areas of Africa, where the emirs of the former Kanem-Bornu Empire have played a part in the politics of this area for nearly 1,000 years. The current Kanemi dynasty gained control of the Borno Emirate in the early 19th century after the Fulani jihad of Usman dan Fodio. 
Conquered by Rabih in 1893, Borno was invaded by the British, French and Germans at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1902, the British officially incorporated Borno into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate and established a new capital at Maiduguri or Yerwa in 1907, which remains the capital to this day.
Borno State consists of twenty-seven (27) Local Government Areas , grouped into three Senatorial Districts that homes 4,171,104 persons and a population density of 72 per square kilometer (per 2006 Census population figures) and covers a landmass area of 57, 799 square kilometers (second ranked among the 36 states according to land area). Also, the state has a GDP of $5.18 billion and $1,214 per capita.

CROSS RIVER STATE
‘The People’s Paradise’ is a South-South State that was created on 27 May 1967 from the former Eastern Region of Nigeria by the General Yakubu Gowon regime. Its name was changed to Cross River State in the 1976 state creation exercise by the then General Murtala Mohammed regime from South Eastern State. The present day Akwa Ibom State was excised from it in the state creation exercise of September 1987 by the then regime of General Ibrahim Babangida. Its capital is Calabar. Its major towns are Akamkpa, Biase, Calabar South, Ikom, Igede, Obubra, Odukpani, Ogoja, Bekwarra, Ugep, Obudu, Obanliku, Akpabuyo, Ofutop, Iso-bendghe, Danare, Boki, Yala, Bendeghe Ekiem, Etomi, Ukpe and Ukelle.
As at 2007, Cross River State recorded one of the highest GDPs of the 36 states of Nigeria at $15.56 billion and $5,150 per capita. Interestingly, this is not because it is an industrial zone, instead, from the soaring plateaus of the mountain tops of Obanliku to the Rain forests of Afi, from the Waterfalls of Agbokim and Kwa to the spiralling ox-bow Calabar River which provides sights and images of the Tinapa Business Resort, Calabar Marina, Calabar Residency Museum and the Calabar Slave Park along its course, there is always a thrilling adventure awaiting the eco-tourist visiting Cross River State.
Other tourist attractions are the Ikom Monoliths (a series of volcanic-stone monoliths of unknown age), the Mary Slessor Tomb, Calabar Drill Monkey Sanctuary, Cross River National Park, Afi Mountain walkway canopy, Kwa falls, Agbokim waterfalls , Tinapa Business Resort and the annual Calabar Carnival that takes place during the Christmas period.
Cross River State can be accessed by air through the Margaret Ekpo International Airport at Calabar. There are daily flights to Calabar from Lagos and Abuja serviced by airlines such as Arik Airlines and Aero Contractors. Aero Contractors also have flights to the Bebi airstrip at Obanliku for trips to the Obanliku Mountain Resort.
The State is composed of several ethnic groups, which include the Efik , the Ejagham , Yakurr , Bette, Yala, Igede , Ukelle and the Bekwarra spread among 3,737,517 persons and a population density of 190 per square kilometer (as at 2016). There are three major languages spoken in the state: Efik, Bekwarra, and Ejagham. The Efik language is widely spoken in the southern part of Cross River State, especially in Calabar Municipality, Calabar South and Odukpani. The Ejagham language is the most widely spoken language in Cross River State; from Calabar Municipality, Akamkpa, Ikom, Obubura, Ogoja, Obudu, and Etung local government councils, to the south west province of Cameroon.
The Efik-speaking people live mainly in the Southern senatorial districts of Cross River, or as it is commonly referred to, the Greater Calabar district, which includes Calabar Municipality, Calabar South, Bakassi, Biase, Akpabuyo, Odukpani, and Akamkpa LGAs. There is also the Qua community in Calabar, which speaks Ejagham. The main Ejagham group occupies mostly the Greater Calabar areas of Calabar Municipality, Odukpani, Biase and Akampkpa sections of Cross River State.
There are also the Yakurr/Agoi/Bahumono ethnic groups in Yakurr and Abi LGA, while the Mbembe are predominantly found in Obubra LGA. Further up the core northern part of the state are several sub-dialectical groups, among which are Etung, Olulumo, Ofutop, Nkim/Nkum, Abanajum, Nseke and Boki in both Ikom, Etung and Boki LGAs. Also, the Yala/Yache, Igede, Ukelle, Ekajuk, Mbube, Bette, Bekwarra and Utugwanga people are found in Ogoja, Yala, Obudu and Obanliku and Bekwarra LGA's. The Yala are a subgroup of the Idoma nation, part of the Yala LGA's subgroups are the Igede speaking people believed to have migrated from the Oju part of Benue State, who migrated from Ora, in Edo North. In Cross River North, Bekwarra is the most widely spoken language. It is understood by other tribes in the district. This language along with Efik and Ejagham is used for news broadcast in the state-owned radio and TV stations.
Simply put, Cross River State epitomises the nation's linguistic and cultural plurality and it is important to note that, despite the diversity of dialects, all the indigenous languages in the state have common linguistic roots as Niger–Congo languages. Finally, the State boasts of being the venue of the largest carnival in Africa.

DELTA STATE
The home of the Federal University of Petroleum Resources and birthplace of the Great Eric Gift and Ogheneyore Nelson, ‘The Big Heart of The Nation’ covers a landmass of about 18,050 square kilometers, of which more than 60% is land. The state lies approximately between Longitude 5°00 and 6°.45' East and Latitude 5°00 and 6°.30' North. It is bounded in the north and west by Edo State, the east by Anambra, Imo, and Rivers States, southeast by Bayelsa State, and on the southern flank is the Bight of Benin which covers about 160 kilometres of the state's coastline. Delta State is generally low-lying without remarkable hills. The state has a wide coastal belt inter-lace with rivulets and streams, which form part of the Niger River Delta.
Delta State is an oil and agricultural producing state of Nigeria, situated in the region known as the South-South geo-political zone with a population of 4,112,445 (males: 2,069,309; females: 2,043,136). The capital city is Asaba , located at the northern end of the state, with an estimated area of 17,108  square kilometres (6,682.81 square miles), while Warri is the economic nerve center of the state and also the most populated. It is located in the southern end of the state. 
There are various solid mineral deposits within the state – industrial clay, silica , lignite , kaolin , tar sand, decorative rocks, limestone, etc. These are raw materials for industries such as brick making, ceramics, bottle manufacturing, glass manufacturing, chemical/insulators production, chalk manufacturing and sanitary wares, decorative stone cutting and quarrying . But these minerals are under-utilized. Delta state also has huge deposits of crude oil and is also one of the largest producers of petroleum products in Nigeria. Thus; sales of petroleum products is what majorly drives its economy. Relatively, Delta State is doing well with a GDP of $16.75 billion and $3,990 per capita recorded in 2007 and an HDI value of 0.556 as of 2016.
Delta State is ethnically diverse, with various linguistic stocks. The first region is made up of three linguistic groupings, collectively referred to as Anioma . They are of Igboid stock and composed of three main groups namely Enuani, who inhabit the Aniocha and Oshimili Local Government Areas; Ika; and Ndokwa/Ukwuani. All three inhabit the Delta North senatorial district.
The second region consists of the other three main linguistic groups: Edoid, comprising the Isoko and Urhobo; Yoruboid, Itsekiri; and Ijoid, Izon. The Urhobo cultural extraction is the largest in the state with over 2 million native speakers. The Itsekiri speak a language very closely related to Yoruba but have been culturally influenced by the Edo ethnic group from neighbouring Edo state, as well as the Urhobo, Ijaw and Portuguese. The Izon are a branch of their kith and kin, in neighbouring Bayelsa State. The vast majority of inhabitants are Christian, with very few practicing Traditional Religion.
The rich history of the state is obvious and different tourist attractions are available to prove this history. Some unique stops are: The River Ethiope which is reputed to be the deepest inland waterway in Africa (at 176 km). Its source is at the foot of a giant silk-cotton tree at Umuaja in Ukwuani Local Government Area of the state and flows through seven Local Government Areas in the State. It is a place of worship for Olokun traditional religion and also a common site for faithfuls of the Igbe Religious Movement.
The Araya Bible Site which houses a copy of the Holy Bible . It is believed that the bible descended to this spot miraculously from heaven around August, 1914. The bible dropped on rain-soaked yam and it didn't get wet. The site now attracts thousands of Christians yearly.
Demas Nwoko Edifice which was built using traditional materials, designs and construction techniques of the Igbo civilization and the Benin Empire by Demas Nwoko , an architect, builder and artist of international repute from Idumuje-Ugboko, in Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta State.
The Mungo Park House which is now the site of the National Museum, Asaba . The house was constructed by the Royal Niger Company (RNC) in 1886 and was used as a colonial administrative headquarters, a military house, the colonial administrative divisional headquarters, the RNC Constabulary building, and the seat of the Urban District Council at different times.
The Niger Bridge which connects Delta State (by extension, western Nigeria) to the Eastern part of Nigeria. It is a beauty to behold. It was completed in 1965 and cost £5 million. It was damaged during the civil war, but later repaired.
Lander Brothers Anchorage, Asaba which was built in memory of early British explorers. The complex has a museum, a graveyard, and many artworks and writings. It houses a replica of one of the boats that was used by the brothers.

EBONYI STATE
The hometown of Ajah Ukpa Nnaemeka, Founder of Rvolutionize, ‘The Salt of the Nation’ spans the total area of 5,533 square kilometers and is home to a population of more than 2,176,947 persons with a population density of 390 per square kilometer by 2006. Ebonyi is called "The Salt of the Nation" for its huge salt deposit at the Okposi and Uburu Salt Lakes. Also, Ebonyi State had a GDP of $2.73 billion, $1,232 per capita and an HDI value of 0.434, the 23rd in the federation, as at 2007.
While many different tribes may inhabit the state, the state is chiefly occupied by Igbo people. Thus, the only form of diversity is the presence of the Edda, Ehugbo, Izi - Ezza - Mgbo- Ikwo dialect cluster, Unwara, Akpoha, Okposi, Onicha and Uburu dialects in their language. The Capital city is Abakaliki and around it, there are smaller major towns including: Afikpo, Unwana, Onueke, Edda, Onicha, etc. The state was created by the federal government by joining parts extracted from both Enugu and Abia State. In 1999, Dr. Sam Ominyi Egwu was elected as the first governor of the state under the People's Democratic Party (PDP). He was succeeded by Martin Elechi who was elected in 2007 and successfully ran for re-election in 2011, under the same PDP. Gov Martin Elechi was succeeded by the current Governor, Dave Umahi, who was elected in the March 2015 election.
Ebonyi is primarily an agricultural region. It is a leading producer of rice, yam, potatoes, maize, beans, and cassava in Nigeria. Rice and yams are predominantly cultivated in Edda, a region within the state. Ebonyi has several solid mineral resources, including lead, crude oil, and natural gas, but few large-scale commercial mining|mines. The state government has, however, given several incentives to investors in the agro-allied sector to encourage production.

EDO STATE
As the ‘Heart Beat of Nigeria’, many communities and ruling dynasties in all the clans trace their roots to the ancient kingdom of Benin. Cultural likenesses are in the areas of religious worships, folk-lore, dances, festivals, traditional modes of dressing, arts and craft. The political pattern and behaviour are based on a situation where both the monarchial and republican ideas flourished in an integrated manner. The colourful traditional festivals in the state manifest its rich cultural heritage. Critical among these are the Igue and Ekaba festivals done among the Binis and manhood initiation (age groups) by the Etsako people. With an estimated population of 3,218, 332 made up of 1,633,946 males and 1,599,420 females and a growth rate of 2.7% per annum (NPC, 2006), as well as a total landmass of 19,187 square kilometers, the state has a population density of about 168 persons per square kilometers. 
With Benin City as capital, the population of the entire state is approximately 8 million. It is made up of three major ethnic groups; namely Edo (Binis), Esan and Afemai (Owan/Etsako) with Akoko Edo. However, the State has a high presence of residents from across the country and the world because of its cosmopolitan tendencies. Benin City the capital has a history of being one of the foremost destinations of Europeans during their exploration of Africa continent many centuries ago. Some of the flash points have remained enviable tourists’ attraction for the state.
An 11th ranked HDI value of 0.531 and a GDP of $11.89 billion and $3,613 per capita, Edo state thrives on the practice of agriculture as its economic mainstay. As such, they focus on the production and processing of manioc (cassava), palm oil, maize and rice for food and rubber, palm oil, kernel and timber are their cash crops.
The main ethnic groups in Edo State are Edos, Afemais, Esans, Owans and Akoko Edos. Virtually all the groups traced their origin to Benin City hence the dialects of the groups vary with their distance from Benin City. The Bini speaking people who occupy seven out of the 18 Local Government Areas of the state constitute 57.54% while others Esan (17.14%) Afemai comprising Etsako (12.19%), Owan (7.43%), and Akoko Edo (5.70%). However, the Igbira speaking communities exist in Akoko Edo as well as Ijaw Izons, Urhobos, Itsekiris communities in Ovia North East and South West Local Government Areas especially in the borderlands. Also, Ika speaking communities exist in Igbanke in Orhionmwon LGA.

EKITI STATE
Ekiti was an independent state prior to the British conquest. It was one of the many Yoruba states in what is today Nigeria. The Ekiti people as a nation and districts of Yoruba race trace some of her progeny to Oduduwa, the father and progenitor of Yoruba race even though good reason appear to establish the existence of aboriginal people in Ekiti region prior to influx of royalty from present day Ile Ife as that kingdom grew and abound.
There are two major schools of thought regarding Ekiti history. First was the story that tied the origin of Ekiti to Ife. The story goes that the Olofin, one of the sons of Oduduwa had 16 children and in the means of searching for the new land to develop, they all journeyed out of Ile-Ife as they walked through the Iwo - Eleru (Cave of Ashes) at Isarun and had stop over at a place called Igbo-Aka (forest of termites) closer to Ile-Oluji.
The Olofin, the 16 children and some other beloved people continued with their journey, but when they got to a particular lovely and flat land, the Owa-Obokun (the Monarch of Ijesha land) and Orangun of Ila decided to stay in the present Ijesha and Igbomina land of in Osun state. While the remaining 14 children journeyed onwards and later settled in the present day Ekiti land. They discovered that there were many hills in the place and they said in their mother's language that this is "Ile olokiti" the land of hills. Therefore, the Okiti later blended to Ekiti. So Ekiti derived her name through hills.
The State is mainly an upland zone, rising over 250 meters above sea level while it enjoys tropical climate with two distinct seasons. These are the rainy season (April–October) and the dry season (November–March). Temperature ranges between 21° and 28 °C with high humidity. The south westerly wind and the northeast trade winds blow in the rainy and dry ( Harmattan ) seasons respectively. Tropical forest exists in the south, while savannah occupies the northern peripheries. It lies on an area underlain by metamorphic rock. It is generally an undulating part of the country with a characteristic landscape that consists of old plains broken by step-sided out-crops that may occur singularly or in groups or ridges. Such rocks out-crops exist mainly at Aramoko , Efon-Alaiye , Ikere-Ekiti ,Igbara-odo- ekiti and Okemesi-Ekiti . The State is dotted with rugged hills, notable ones being Ikere-Ekiti Hills in the south, Efon-Alaiye Hills on the western boundary and Ado-Ekiti Hills in the centre.
Ekiti land is naturally endowed with numerous natural resources, and while the state is potentially rich in mineral deposits. These include granite, kaolinite, columbite, channockete, iron ore, baryte, aquamine, gemstone, phosphate, limestone, gold among others. They are largely deposited in different towns and villages of Ijero, Ekiti West, Ado - Ekiti, Ikole, Ikere, Ise-Ekiti and other Local Government Areas.
The Land is also blessed with water resources, some of its major rivers are Ero, Osun , Ose, and Ogbese. More so, a variety of tourist attractions abound in the state namely, Ikogosi Warm Springs ; Arinta Water Falls; Olosunta and Orole hills of Ikere; Fajuyi Memorial Park of Ado - Ekiti and so on. The Ikogosi tourist centre is the most popular and the most developed. The warm spring is a unique natural feature, and supporting facilities are developed in the centre. The spring is at present, being processed and packaged into bottled water for commercial purpose by a private company - UAC Nigeria.
Moreover, the land is buoyant in agricultural resources with cocoa as its leading cash crop. It was largely known that Ekiti land constituted well over 40% of the cocoa products of the famous old Western Region. The land is also known for its forest resources, notably timber. The favourable climatic conditions the land enjoys ensures luxuriant vegetation, thus, it has abundant resources of different species of timber. Food crops such as yam , cassava , and also grains like rice and maize are grown in large qualities. Other notable crops such as kola nut and varieties of fruits are also cultivated in commercial quantities. Nevertheless, the state has last recorded a GDP of $2.85 billion and $1,169 per capita but an HDI value of 0.561.
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(This post was last modified: 01-29-2019, 12:14 AM by Kalel1459.)

ENUGU STATE
Just like Ekiti State, the name of the state is derived from a reference to hills, as its capital city, "Enugu" (from Enu Ugwu) means "the top of the hill". The first European settlers arrived in the area in 1909, led by a British mining engineer named Albert Kitson. In his quest for silver, he discovered coal in the Udi Ridge. The Colonial Governor of Nigeria Frederick Lugard took a keen interest in the discovery, and by 1914 the first shipment of coal was made to Britain. As mining activities increased in the area, a permanent cosmopolitan settlement emerged, supported by a railway system. Enugu acquired township status in 1917 and became strategic to British interests. Foreign businesses began to move into Enugu, the most notable of which were John Holt, Kingsway Stores, the British Bank of West Africa and the United Africa Company. Now, unlike Ekiti State, Enugu records a slightly better GDP of $4.39 billion and the HDI value of 0.541.
From Enugu the British administration was able to spread its influence over the Southern Province of Nigeria. The colonial past of Enugu is today evidenced by the Georgian building types and meandering narrow roads within the residential area originally reserved for the whites, an area which is today called the Government Reserved Area (GRA).
From being the capital of the Southern Provinces, Enugu became the capital of the Eastern Region (now divided into nine States), the capital of now defunct Federal Republic of Biafra, thereafter, the capital of East Central State, Anambra State, (old) Enugu State, and now the capital of the present Enugu State through a process of state creation and diffusion of administrative authority.
Economically, ‘The Coal City State’ is predominantly rural and agrarian, with a substantial proportion of its working population (out of the 3,267,837 persons recorded in the 2006 population census) engaged in farming, although trading (18.8%) and services (12.9%) are also important. In the urban areas trading is the dominant occupation, followed by services. A small proportion of the population is also engaged in manufacturing activities, with the most pronounced among them located in Enugu, Oji, Ohebedim and Nsukka. The state has an HDI value of 0.541, 4th highest as at 2016. 
Enugu, the capital city of Enugu State, is on the railroad from Port Harcourt, 150 miles (240 km) south-southwest, and at the intersection of roads from Aba, Onitsha, and Abakaliki. It is approximately 4 driving hours away from Port Harcourt, where coal shipments exited Nigeria. Enugu is also located within an hour's drive from Onitsha, one of the biggest commercial cities in Africa and two hours' drive from Aba, another very large commercial city, both of which are trading centres in Nigeria. The average temperature in this city is cooler to mild (60 degrees Fahrenheit) in its cooler months and gets warmer to hot in its warmer months (upper 80 degrees Fahrenheit) and very good for outdoor activities with family and friends or just for personal leisure.
The state boasts of a number of markets especially at each of the divisional headquarters, prominent of which is the Ogbete Main market in the State capital, Enugu. There is also one of the largest grains market East of the Niger, the Orie Orba Market which plays host to most farmers from the North Central States of Benue, Kogi, Nassarawa and Plateau who use the market to dispose their produce for consumers in South-East and South-Southern Nigeria. Every four days, grains and other farm produce are found in large quantities and at highly competitive prices.
While Enugu has a total landmass area of 7,161 square kilometers and a population density of 460 square kilometers, Enugu has good soil-land and climatic conditions all year round, sitting at about 223 metres (732 ft) above sea level, and the soil is well drained during its rainy seasons. The mean temperature in Enugu State in the hottest month of February is about 87.16 °F (30.64 °C), while the lowest temperatures occur in the month of November, reaching 60.54 °F (15.86 °C). The lowest rainfall of about 0.16 cubic centimetres (0.0098 cubic inches) is normal in February, while the highest is about 35.7 cubic centimetres (2.18 cubic inches) in July.

GOMBE STATE
The HDI value of the state being 0.401 speaks volumes about what to expect, certainly, a GDP return of $2.50 billion and $1,036 per capita is not the highest or even among the top 25 states in the country. Nevertheless, the people of Gombe State are proud of ‘The jewel in the Savannah’ as it is a multi-ethnic society that consists of the dominant Fulani tribe, who inhabit the Northern part of the Gombe State, and Tangale, who occupy the southern part of the state. Other ethnicities include the Hausa, Tera, Waja, Bolewa, and Kanuri, with their different cultural as well as lingual affiliations. The second largest ethnic group apart from Hausa is the Tera, who occupy the greater part of Yamaltu Deba Local Government. The state capital, Gombe, is a reflection of the heterogeniety of the state.
Simultaneously nicknamed ‘The jewel of Excellence’, Gombe State was formed in October 1996 from part of the old Bauchi State by the Abacha military government. Its location in the north eastern zone, right within the expansive savannah, allows the state to share common borders with the states of Borno, Yobe, Taraba, Adamawa and Bauchi. The state has an area of 20,265 km² and a population of around 2,365,000 people as of 2006. Gombe has two distinct climates, the dry season (November–March) and the rainy season (April–October) with an average rainfall of 850mm. The State is headed by the Executive Governor, Ibrahim Hassan Dankwambo, and also has 24 State House Assembly members. Gombe has 11 Local Government Areas and 14 Emirates /chiefdoms. It has 3 Senators and 6 Members in the National Assembly.

IMO STATE
Easily the epitome of the mid-southern state of the country, the ‘Eastern Heartland’, Imo State, lies within latitudes 4°45'N and 7°15'N, and longitude 6°50'E and 7°25'E with an area of around 5,100 square kilometers, bordered by Abia State on the East, River Niger and Delta State to the West, Anambra State on the North and Rivers State to the South. The economy of the state, which yields a GDP of $14.21 billion and $3,527 per capita depends primarily on agriculture and commerce, while it has an HDI value of 0.518. Predictably so, as many investment opportunities exist in the state including oil and gas exploration, chemical plants, brewery plants, hydroelectric plants , gas-fired power plants, grain mills, starch production, cashews, fruit and vegetable juice concentrate production, integrated multi-oil seed processing plants, ceramics, inland waterway transport, and palm produce industry. 
Industrial parks and processing zones to harness the huge agricultural produce and minerals would give a major boost to the state's economic growth and industrialization. The chief occupation of the local people is farming, but due to over-farming and high population density, the soil has greatly degraded. The cash crops include oil palm, raffia palm, rice, groundnut, melon, cotton, cocoa, rubber, and maize. Consumable crops such as yam, cassava, cocoyam and maize are also produced in large quantities.
There are over 163 oil wells at over 12 different locations in the state. The main petroleum companies operating in the state are Chevron Corporation, Royal Dutch Shell, Addax Petroleum and Agip. Some of the established oil-rich local government councils include Ohaji/Egbema, Oguta, Oru East, Iho, Oru West, Obowo and Ngor Okpala.
Independent global brewer Heineken, through its subsidiary Nigerian Breweries, has significant investment in Imo State. The company manages the world-class Awo-omamma Brewery, a multiple-line plant. In truth, there are many more oil and gas opportunities yet to be developed. 
Oguta Lake , Palm Beach Holiday Resort in Awo-omamma and a host of other tourist sites along the banks of the 26 km-length Njaba River present hotspots for tourism. 
Owerri is the state’s capital and among the largest cities in the state. Its other major cities are [Orlu, Ogwuta, Mbaise Nigeria|Orlu] and Okigwe. Located in the south-eastern region of Nigeria, it occupies the area between the lower River Niger and the upper and middle Imo River. The Orashi River has its source in this Imo River, and being the major river in the state, it drains through Abia State, where it is joined by Aba River from the north, and Akwa Ibom State into the Atlantic Ocean. There are also the Njaba River, Onas Creek in Ohaji/Egbema , Okitankwo River in Umudi, and Ohia and Efuru Rivers in Okigwe, Oguta Lake, Utu River, Ezize River and Awbana River in the state. Otamiri River and its 9.2 km length tributary, Nworie River, flow in the state. 
The state has several natural resources including crude oil, natural gas, lead, Calcium Cabornate and zinc and the state profits from a rich list of Flora including iroko, mahogany, obeche, bamboo, rubber tree and oil palm. Additionally white clay, fine sand and limestone are found in the state. Imo's major towns include Omuma, Mgbidi, Isu, Okigwe, Ohaji/Egbema, Oguta, Orlu, Mbaitoli, Atta Ikeduru, Awo-Omamma, Amaigbo,  Akokwa, Mbaise, Mbieri, Orodo, Nkwerre, Ubulu, Ngor Okpala, Izombe, Orsu, and Umuowa Orlu.
Unfortunately, Imo State had a population of 3,927,563 persons over a total area of 5,530 square kilometers. Consequently, with high population density and over farming, the soil has been degraded and much of the native vegetation has disappeared.

JIGAWA STATE
Located at the border of the true north of the Nigerian map, ‘The New World’ is situated in the north-western part of the country between latitudes 11.00°N to 13.00°N and longitudes 8.00°E to 10.15°E. Kano State and Katsina State border Jigawa to the west, Bauchi State to the east and Yobe State to the northeast. To the north, as hinted to earlier, Jigawa shares an international border with Zinder Region in The Republic of Niger , which is a unique opportunity for cross-border trading activities. Government readily took advantage of this by initiating and establishing a Free-Trade Zone at the Border town of Maigatari of country of Niger.
The state has a total land area of approximately 22,410 square kilometres. Its topography is characterized by undulating land, with sand dunes of various sizes spanning several kilometres in parts of the State. The southern part of Jigawa comprises the Basement Complex while the northeast is made up of sedimentary rocks of the Chad Formation. The main rivers are Hadejia, Kafin Hausa and Iggi Rivers with a number of tributaries feeding extensive marshlands in north-eastern part of the State. Hadejia – Kafin Hausa River traverses the State from west to east through the Hadejia-Nguru wetlands and empties into the Lake Chad Basin.
The Economy of Jigawa State is largely characterized by informal sector activities with agriculture as the major economic activity. Over 80% of the 3.6 million people that inhabit the state is engaged in subsistence farming and animal husbandry. Most parts of Jigawa lie within the Sudan Savannah with elements of Guinea Savannah in the southern part. Total forest cover in the State is very much below national average of 14.8%. Due to both natural and human factors, forest cover is being depleted, making northern part of the State highly vulnerable to desert encroachment. The State enjoys vast fertile arable land to which almost all tropical crops could adapt, thus constituting one of its highly prized natural resources. The Sudan Savannah vegetation zone is also made up of vast grazing lands suitable for livestock production. Trade and commerce are undertaken on small and medium scale, especially in agric goods, livestock and other consumer goods. Other informal sector activities include blacksmithing, leather-works, tailoring services, auto repairs, metal works, carpentry, tanning, dyeing, food processing, masonry etc. Even though modern industrial sector is yet to gain a solid footing, the seed for their development was planted through establishment of small-scale industries particularly in areas of food processing and other agro-allied activities. These industries have been helped by the Information Communication Technology program initiated by the Saminu Turaki, the states former governor. 
The Federal Office of Statistics, in 2001, classified Jigawa State among those with relatively high severity and incidence of poverty in the country, with a Gross Per Capita Income of N35, 000 per annum (US$290), which is below the National Average. However, the 2002 Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ) Survey indicated that over two-fifths of the population do not consider themselves poor. The socio-cultural situation in Jigawa State could be described as homogeneous: it is mostly populated by the Hausa and Fulani, who can be found in all parts of the State. Kanuri are largely found in Hadejia Emirate, with some traces of Badawa mainly in its Northeastern parts. Even though each of the three dominant tribes have continued to maintain its ethnic identity, Islam and a long history of inter-marriages have continued to bind them together.
The State of infrastructure for economic development such as roads, electricity, telecommunication and information technology have recently witnessed tremendous improvements through massive rehabilitation and expansion works. With massive road rehabilitation projects already undertaken throughout the State during the last five years, coupled with efforts made towards power generation via Independent Power Platforms, and the Internet Broadband Project, investment climate in Jigawa State in terms of economic infrastructure is quite promising.

KADUNA STATE
This State is made up of up to sixty (60) different cultural groups namely: Adara (dubbed Kadara), Akurmi (labelled Kurama by the Hausa), Anghan (dubbed Kamanton by the Hausa), Amo, Aruruma (named Ruruma by the Hausa), Atachaat (dubbed Kachechere), Atyab (dubbed Kataf by the Hausa), Ayu, Bajju (dubbed Kaje by the Hausa), Bakulu (Ikulu by the Hausa), Bhazar (named Koro), Bur (Sanga), Binawa, Dingi, Fantswam, Fulfulde, Gbagyi (Gwari in Hausa), Gure, Gwandara, Gwong (Kagoma in Hausa), Ham (dubbed Jaba in Hausa, which is a derogatory name), Hausa, Jangi (dubbed Gwari by the Hausa), Kaibi, Kahugu, Kanufi, Kigono, Kinugu, Kitimi, Kiwafa, Kiwollo, Koro, Kuvori (called Surubu), Kuturmi, Lemoro (unverified), Mada (Mardan) Mada must have migrated during colonial rule, Nandu, Nduyah, Numana, Nindem, Ningeshe, Ninkyop, Ninzo, Nyenkpa (Yeskwa), Oegworok, Pikal, Pitti, Ribang, Rishuwa, Rumada, Ruruma, Rumayya, Shemawa (Hausa name), Sholio (Dubbed Marwa), Siyawa (of Bauchi state), Takad, (Attakar) Tarri, Tsam (Chawai) and Tuku (Atuku by the Hausa).
The origin of the State’s name id dominated by Gbagyis, who claim that the name is either a corrupted version of the Gbagyi word for ‘River’ or the Hausa story related to ‘Crocodiles’. The latter of which many Gbagyi people argue against. The state is the successor of the old ‘Northern Region of Nigeria’, which had its capital at Kaduna which is now the state capital to about 6.3 million people (Nigerian census figure, 2006). This was at the time of British colonial rule in northern Nigeria, when the people groups who live in the area became 'Northern Nigerians'- a construct which continues even today. By 1967 these people groups again were carved into 'North Central State'; this was the case until 1975 that 'Kaduna State' was formerly created by the then military leader, Gen. Murtala Mohammed, with all distinct identities amalgamated into one state without a referendum.
Places that should be recognized are the ancient cities of Zaria, Kafanchan, and Nok, the area where Africa's earliest civilization is recorded to have been excavated. The most intriguing aspect of this area is that the colonial construction and its post-colonial successor called 'Nigeria' hardly documented the history or the method of how Kaduna state's people groups encompassed in these constructs. Under the governance of Kaduna are the the people who populate the area, who have lived in near oblivion or obscurity as they often are thought of as Hausa people.
Available records show that Christian mission activities in the area began formally in the 1900s with the establishment of Sudan Interior Mission (S.I.M.) in the Ham town of Har Kwain (Kwoi), hence today these people groups are Mainly Christians. Culturally, the people groups of the then southern Zaria who are now Southern Kaduna, with some exception it must be acknowledged, share a lot in the cultural practices of marriage rites, naming, burial, farming, social organisations, kinship, etc. Until full scale research is undertaken, the diversity of Kaduna state remains blurred as some ethnic groups are so small in population that they are often overshadowed by the larger groups who live near them.
One of the most impressive statistics about the state is probably the healthcare system, as Kaduna State has over 1,000 primary healthcare facilities to cater to every resident - even in the most remote village or ward of the state. To further improve on healthcare delivery, in 2016, the Kaduna State Government partnered with the UK Department For International Development (DFID) to install over 1.3MW of Solar Systems in primary healthcare facilities across the state.
The state is located at the Northern part of Nigeria's High Plains, covering an area of 46,053 square kilometers. The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and grasses. The soil is mostly loamy to sandy type. A substantial amount of clay is found also. All that alludes to a GDP of $13.33 billion and $1,666 per capita. Nevertheless, ‘The Centre of Learning’ does not fall short of its name by being one of the most academically clustered states in Nigeria.

KANO STATE
The most populous state in Nigeria with 9,401,288 persons (per the population census of 2006), Kano State is mostly populated by Hausa people. As such, the official language is the Hausa language, even though the Fulani language is more commonly spoken. Kano State is a state located in Northern Nigeria. Created on May 27, 1967 from part of the aforementioned Northern Region (see Kaduna), Kano state borders Katsina State to the north-west, Jigawa State to the north-east, Bauchi State to the south-east and Kaduna State to the south-west. The capital of Kano State is Kano and is the birthplace of Ebuehi Adesuwa who is considered by many to be the most beautiful lady in the world. Jigawa State has long been separated from Kano State since 1991.
Kano State is the second largest industrial center after Lagos State in Nigeria and the largest in Northern Nigeria with textile, tanning, footwear, cosmetics, plastics, enamelware, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, furniture and other industries. Others include agricultural implements, soft drinks, food and beverages, dairy products, vegetable oil, animal feeds etc.
Commercial activities in Kano first developed with the establishment of the Kurmi market by the Emir of Kano Muhammadu Rumfa in the 16th Century CE. Subsequent leaders made contributions to the emergence of Kano as a leading commercial center in Sudanic Africa. During the Caliphate period in the 19th century the Emirs Ibrahim Dabo and Sulaimanu encouraged traders to move from Katsina, capitalising on raids from the Hausa Sultanate of Maradi. The Jihad leaders of the Caliphate encouraged Kola nut trade and Kano was the greatest beneficiary with an annual turnover of about $30 million. Craft industries also evolved in the pre-colonial period contributing to the prosperity of the province.
Subsistence and commercial agriculture is mostly practiced in the outlying districts of the state. Some of the food crops cultivated are millet, cowpeas, sorghum, maize and rice for local consumption while groundnuts and cotton are produced for export and industrial purposes.
During the colonial period and several years after the country’s independence, the groundnuts produced in the state constituted one of the major sources revenue of the country. Kano State is a major producer of hides and skins, sesame, soybean, cotton, garlic, gum arabic and chili pepper. Presently, the ‘Centre of Commerce’ documented a GDP of $12.39 billion and $1,288 per capita.

KEBBI STATE
Kebbi is traditionally considered by Sarki mythology as the homeland of the Banza bakwai states and Hausa Kingdoms. According to recent research based on local oral traditions, king lists and on the Kebbi chronicle, the state of Kebbi was founded towards 600 BCE by refugees of the Assyrian empire conquered by Babylonian and Median forces in 612 BCE. A major local event was the conquest by Songhai in the second half of the fifteenth century CE. During the early Nineteenth century, Kebbi first resisted the Fulani jihad, but in the later 19th-century the area largely converted to Islam through peaceful means.
The ‘Land of Equity’ total area of 36,800 km² was created out of a part of Sokoto State in 1991. Kebbi State is bordered by Sokoto State, Niger State, Zamfara State, Dosso Region in the Republic of Niger and the nation of Benin. Its capital is at Birnin-Kebbi.
Located to the south of the state is the ancient Zuru emirate which is divided into five traditional entities: Dabai, Sakaba, Danko, Wasagu and Fakai. The third class chief who is also member of the Zuru town in Dabai chiefdom, where the emirate headquarters also is located, heads each. It is boarded by Gummi in Zamfara State in the North. To the south is Niger State, this borderline extends also arbitrarily on land to the west to a point where it ends a few kilometers to the west of large tributary of the Dan Zari River. Here a northwest ward protrusion of Yauri Emirate of Kebbi.
In fact, going by history, Zuru people being multi-ethic are grouped into categories. First category is of those that claim long term settlement and the second category is of the much more recent settlers who in fact regard themselves – and are also regarded by the others as recent immigrants or even as temporary strangers. In the first category are the Achifawa, Kambari, Dukkawa Fakkawa,'Dankawa, Worawa, Katsinawa and Lelna (Dakarkari' such as sindawa').
It is characteristic to find that some of them lay some claim to origin from Hausa. Zuru as was said, was due to upheaval resulting from events such as Kanta’s breakaway from Songhai and Nupe-Kororofa control. Moreover, the Katsinawa, who in fact see themselves as immigrants from the old state of Katsina which had made political in road Zuru region, especially from the 16 th century A.D. onward, and had enabled them to settle and to area’s indigenous population. Kebbi state was created out of the former Sokoto State on 17 August 1991. The State has a total population of 3,137,989 people (per the 2006 census) as projected from the 1991 census, within 21 Local Government areas.
The state has Sudan and sahel-savannah. The southern part is generally rocky with the Niger River traversing the state from Benin to Ngaski LGA. The northern part of the state is sandy with the Rima River passing through Argungu to Bagudo LGA where it empties into the Niger. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people especially in rural areas, Crops produced are mainly grains; animal rearing and fishing are also common. Christianity and Islam are the dominant religions of the people. There are 225 political wards, 3000 settlements and 1036 hard to reach settlements in the 21 Local Government Areas in the State.
Abubakar Atiku Bagudu since assuming office in 2015, has transformed Kebbi State from being a purely civil servant state and made it more industrialised. Kebbi State has become one of the major producers of rice in Nigeria. The current participation of more than 70,000 farmers in the Anchor Borrowers Rice and wheat farming is heading towards making Kebbi a new destination and hub for agro based commodities of the Country. As such, the state has improved its GDP from $3.29 billion and $993 measured in 2007.
Abubakar Bagudu, who is also the Chairman, National Task Force on Rice and Wheat Production in Nigeria, then led a high-level delegation from Kebbi to visit Lagos state in a bid to encourage interstate relations in the Agric sector. Part of the deliberations include several mutual trade relations including Rice production and marketing alliance, Animals trade, farm produce processing and marketing as well as tourism promotions. At the end of deliberations, A Memorandum of Understanding was signed, which they aid would culminate in the production of 70% of Nigeria's rice requirements annually. Nevertheless, it has an HDI value of 0.382.
In addition, Officials of the Flour Mills of Nigeria Plc led by its Managing Director were not left out of this quest of exploring the agriculture potentials of Kebbi State. The giant Flour Mills Plc aims to establish a full fledges Flour Mills Company in the State, because of the abundance rice cultivation and production which cut across 17 out of the 21 local government areas of the State.
To reiterate his commitment to ensure that Kebbi state isn't only dependent on Federal allocation, the active Governor Atiku Bagudu paid a visit to Benin Republic last year and while on the trip, signed several bilateral trade protocols with the Government and Business Community of Benin Republic with a view to fostering trade, industrial and tourism relationships with the country.

KOGI STATE
It seems a work of fate that the confluence of the River Niger and river Benue occurs at the capital of state in the Middle Belt of this great nation. Nevertheless, with Lokoja as its capital, ‘The Confluence State’, Kogi, was the first administrative capital of the Nigeria. The state was created in 1991 from parts of Kwara State and Benue State and covers a total landmass area of 29,833 square kilometers. The state as presently constituted, comprises the people of the Kabba Province of Northern Nigeria and is constituted mainly of three tribes: Igala, Egbira and Okun as well as a minor population of Bassa-Nge, Ogor, Magongo, Idoma and eggan communities among others. It was here in Lokoja, Flora Shaw came up with the name “Nigeria”, with inspiration from the river Niger.
A GDP of $4.64 million and $1,386 per capita are the fruits of an economy reliant on agriculture as there are many farm produce from the state notably coffee, cocoa, palm oil, cashews, groundnuts, maize, cassava, yam, rice and melon, as well as fishing in the riverine areas like Lokoja, Idah, Baji etc. even though the state is home to the largest iron and steel industry in Nigeria known as Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited and one of the largest cement factories in Africa, the Obajana Cement Factory due to the available mineral resources that include coal, limestone, iron, petroleum and tin.
From a population of 3,314,043 persons, Kogi State has contributed its fair share of athletes. Kogi State has produced sprinters such as Sunday Bada and other sportsmen, who have contributed to the growth of sports worldwide. Kogi United and Babanawa F.C. are football teams based in the state. Other sports, such as swimming , handball, and table tennis are actively promoted in the state. The Kogi state Sports Council had a track record of Directors and great personnel team Who at one time or the other had worked with the vision of putting the State fully on the world map. Among them are personalities like Mr. Francis Umoru, Mr. Mohammed Emeje, Mr. Benjamin O. Ameje , Mr. A. Ogido, Mr. Joel J. Abu and others.
Among other sportsmen produce by the state is Shola Ameobi, an Ayetoro Gbede born Ijumu, English footballer, currently playing for Bolton Wanderers as a striker , late Sunday Bada 400 Metres Olympic Champion from Ogidi in Ijumu Local Govt. of the state.

KWARA STATE
The modern Kwara covers a landmass area of 35,705 square kilometers, even after successive extractions of states from a much larger Kwara State in the past. Indeed, 13 February 1976 saw the Idah/Dekina part of the state carved out and merged with a part of the then Benue/Plateau State to form Benue State. Later, On 27 August 1991, five local government areas, namely Oyi, Yagba, Okene, Okehi and Kogi were also excised to form part of the new Kogi State, while a sixth, Borgu Local Government Area, was merged with Niger State. All the same, Kwara State still boasted a population size of 2,365,353 persons during the population census of 2006, having relied mainly on immigration for socioeconomic development and population growth.
Kwara State’s capital is Ilorin and it is located within the North Central geopolitical zone, commonly referred to as the Middle Belt. The primary ethnic group is Yoruba, with significant Nupe, Bariba, and Fulani minorities. Interestingly, even with all this cultural diversity, the state is known as ‘The State of Harmony’. Let us pray it lasts.
Even with its relatively low population (ranked 30th in the country), Kwara state still contributes quite a lot to the economy of the country, that is if the State’s GDP of $3.84 billion and $1,910 per capita is anything to go by. This is partly due to the numerous Industries in the state include Dangote Flour Mill, Lubcon Lubricant Company, Kam Industries Nigeria Ltd, Tuyil Pharmacy Nig Ltd, Padson Industries NiG Ltd, Kwara Breweries, Ijagbo Global Soap and Detergent Industry, United Match Company, Tate and Lyle Company, Resinoplast Plastic Industry, Phamatech Nigeria Limited, Kwara Textile and Kwara Furniture Company all in Ilorin. Others are Paper Manufacturing Industry, Jebba, Okin Foam and Okin Biscuits, Offa, Kay Plastic, Ganmo and Kwara Paper Converters Limited, Erin-ile. Others are Sugar Producing Company, Bacita, Kwara animal Feed Mall, Ilorin and the Agricultural Products Company.
However, even with all these industries, it comes as a surprise to many that the main supply for the state is agriculture. The main cash crops produce there are: cotton, cocoa, coffee, Kolanut, tobacco, beniseed and palm produce. There are also mineral resources in the state as Gold, limestone, marble, feldspar, clay, kaolin, quartz and granite rocks are present in abundance. Important tourist attractions in Kwara State include Esie Museum, Owu waterfalls, Imoleboja Rock Shelter, Ogunjokoro, Kainji Lake National Parks and Agbonna Hill Awon Mass Wedding in Shao. There is also Sobi Hill amongst others which is the largest landform in Ilorin, the state capital.

LAGOS STATE
Arguably the most popular state in the country, it is also the most economically significant state of Nigeria. So large is the value of the economy of the state, that, on its own, Lagos State would be the fifth largest economy in Africa! The state is located southwest of the geopolitical map of Nigeria, sharing borders with Ogun State in the east and north. In the west it shares boundaries with the Republic of Benin. Behind its southern borders lies the Atlantic Ocean and 22% of its 3,577 square kilometers are lagoons and creeks. On this area, a disputed value of 9,113,605 persons (as at 2006) and approximately 16 million as at 2015 reside, which puts it in position to have its conurbation as one of the most populous in the world.
Before the Portuguese name of Lagos had been adopted, Lagos' initial name was Eko which referred mainly to the Island. The first to settle in Eko were the Aworis. The Awori hunters and fishermen had originally come from Ile-Ife to the coast. The name Eko comes either from the Yoruba "Oko" (cassava farm) or "Eko" (war camp). Over 650 years ago, the Oba of Bini sent warriors to Eko who were received in a welcoming manner by the residing Awori fishermen. The Bini Prince, Ado, who led the war party, was asked to become their leader. From that point on, Eko belonged to Yoruba.
Lagos State was created on 27 May 1967 according to the State Creation and Transitional Provisions Decree No. 14 of 1967, which restructured Nigeria into a Federation of 12 states. Before the issuance of this Decree, Lagos city , which was the country's capital had been administered directly by the Federal Government through the Federal Ministry of Lagos Affairs. However, Ikeja, Agege, Mushin, Ikorodu, Epe and Badagry were administered by the then Western Region Government. Lagos, the city, along with these other towns were captured to create the state of Lagos, with the state becoming fully recognized as a semi-autonomous administrative division on 11 April 1968. Lagos served the dual role of being the State and Federal Capital until 1976, when the capital of the State was moved to Ikeja. After the full establishment of the Federal Capital Territory , the seat of the Federal Government was also formally relocated to Abuja on 12 December 1991. Nevertheless, Lagos still remains the financial centre of the country, and also grew to become the most populous city in the state and the country.
Ikeja is the state capital of Lagos State. Prior to the emergence of military rule in the early 1980s, Ikeja was a well planned, clean and quiet residential and commercial town with shopping malls, pharmacies and government reservation areas. The Murtala Mohammed International Airport is in Ikeja. Ikeja is also home to Femi Kuti's African Shrine and Lagbaja's Motherland, both live music venues. It now boasts a shopping mall, Ikeja City Mall, which is the largest mall in the Mainland of Lagos State and also has a cinema.
Also, in the south-eastern part of the state, is the Lekki peninsula, a naturally formed peninsula, which is still largely under construction. As of 2015, only phase 1 of the project has been completed, with phase 2 nearing completion. The peninsula is approximately 70 to 80 km long, with an average width of 10 km. Lekki currently houses several estates, gated residential developments, agricultural farmlands, areas allocated for a Free Trade Zone, an airport, and a sea port under construction. The proposed land use master plan for the Lekki envisages the Peninsula as a "Blue-Green Environment City", expected to accommodate over 3.4 million residential population and an additional non-residential population of at least 1.9 million. The remaining four LGAs (Badagry, Ikorodu, Ibeju-Lekki and Epe) are within Lagos State but are not part of Metropolitan Lagos.
While the state is essentially a Yoruba-speaking environment, it is a socio-cultural melting pot attracting both Nigerians and foreigners alike. Indigenous inhabitants include the Aworis and Eguns in Ikeja and Badagry Divisions respectively, with the Eguns being found mainly in Badagry. There is also an admixture of other pioneer settlers collectively known as the Ekos. The indigenes of Ikorodu and Epe Divisions are mainly the Ijebus with pockets of Eko-Awori settlers along the coastland and riverine areas.
Lagos State’s total generated revenue in 2017 was around ₦ 334 billion (equivalent to US$920 million), growing by 10.43% compared to 2016 and as of 2014, they had a GDP of $91 billion and $4,333 per capita. All in all, the state has an HDI of 0.652.

NASARAWA STATE
Nasarawa is a state in north central Nigeria. Its capital is Lafia. Nasarawa State is bounded in the north by Kaduna State , in the west by the Abuja Federal Capital Territory, in the south by Kogi and Benue States and in the east by Taraba and Plateau States. A network of roads exist within the state, linking all rural areas and major towns. The Nigerian Railway Corporation (NRC) operates train services from Kuru, Gombe and Maiduguri.
As the ‘Home of Solid Minerals’, there are different minerals in abundance such as salt, baryte, and bauxite, which are mostly mined by artisanal miners even though agriculture is the mainstay of its economy with the production of varieties of cash crops throughout the year. Altogether, Nasarawa State puts forward a total $3.02 billion and $1,588 per capita. Ultimately, the state has an HDI of 0.506.
Nasarawa State is home to the Farin Ruwa Falls in Wamba Local Government area of the state. Farin Ruwa falls is reputed to be one of the highest falls in Africa.
There is also the Salt Village in Keana Local Government Area of the State. It produces naturally iodized salt from the lake located near it. The town is also one of the cradles of Alago civilization, one of the major ethnic groups in the state.

OGUN STATE
Ogun State is a state in southwestern Nigeria. Created in 1976, it borders Lagos State to the south, Oyo and Osun states to the north, Ondo to the east and the Republic of Benin to the west. Abeokuta is the capital and largest city in the state. The state's nickname is "Gateway to Nigeria". It was created in February 1976 from the former Western State. The 2006 census recorded a total population of 3,751,140 residents.
Other cities and towns in the Ogun State are Ijebu Ode, Ijebu Imusin, Sagamu, Ijebu Igbo, Ogere Remo, Iperu, Ilisan Remo, Ikenne, Ilaro, Ayetoro, Agbado, Akute and Ota. The state is notable for having a high concentration of industrial estates and being a major manufacturing hub in Nigeria. Major factories in Ogun include: Dangote Cement factory in Ibese, Nestle, Lafarge Cement factory in Ewekoro and Coleman Cables in Sagamu and Arepo, Procter & Gamble in Agbara, amongst others.
From these investments and agricultural involvements, Ogun State realized a total of $10.47 billion for its GDP and $2,740 per capita as at 2007. In 2016, Ogun State recorded an HDI value of 0.549.

ONDO STATE
Ondo or Ondo State is a state in Nigeria created on 3 February 1976 from the former Western State. It originally included what is now Ekiti State, which was split off in 1996. Akure is the state capital. Each Nigerian state has several ministerial offices representing the federal government.
Ondo state borders Ekiti state to the north, Kogi State to the northeast, Edo State to the east, Delta State to the southeast, Ogun State to the southwest, and Osun State to the northwest and covers 15,500 square kilometers holding 3,460,877 persons and providing a total GDP of $8.41 billion and $2,392 and an HDI value of 0.500.
The state contains eighteen local government areas, the major ones being Akoko, Akure, Okitipupa, Ondo, and Owo. The majority of the state's citizens live in urban centers. The big government universities in Ondo state are the Federal University of Technology Akure, Akure and the Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko.
The ethnic composition of Ondo State is largely from the Yoruba subgroups of the Akoko, Akure, Okitipupa, Ilaje, Ondo, and Owo peoples. Ijaw such as Apoi and Arogbo populations inhabit the coastal areas, while a sizable number of the Ondo State people who speak a variant of the Yoruba language similar to Ife dialect reside in Oke-Igbo.

OSUN STATE
Osun (pronounced; "O'Shoon") is an inland state in south-western Nigeria . Its capital is Osogbo . It is bounded in the north by Kwara State, in the east partly by Ekiti State and partly by Ondo State, in the south by Ogun State and in the west by Oyo State. The state's current governor is Adegboyega Oyetola, who was declared winner of the September 2018 governorship elections. He was declared winner of the September 27, 2018 rerun elections after the initial September 22, 2018 gubernatorial election was declared inconclusive by the Independent National Electoral Commission. Osun is home to several of Nigeria's most famous landmarks, including the campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria's pre-eminent institution of higher learning. The university is also located in the ancient town of Ile-Ifẹ , an important early center of political and religious development for Yoruba culture. Other important cities and towns include the ancient kingdom-capitals of Oke-Ila Orangun, Ila Orangun, Ijebu-Jesa, Ede, Iwo, Ejigbo, Modakeke, Ibokun , Ode-Omu, Ifetedo, Esa-Oke, Ilesa and Igbajo.
The modern Osun State was created in August 27, 1991 from part of the old Oyo State and covering a landmass area of 9,251 square kilometers. The state's name is derived from the River Osun , the venerated natural spring that is the manifestation of the Yoruba goddess of the same name.
The former Governor Olagunsoye Oyinlola launched and laid the foundation for the groundbreaking of Osun State University with six campuses ( Osogbo , Okuku , Ikire, Ejigbo, Ifetedo, and Ipetu-Ijesha) strategically located across the state. Important cultural events in the state include the Ori Oke and Egungun festival in Iragbiji, Olojo in Ife and the Osun Osogbo festival.
Every year, adherents and non-adherents of Osun, one of the Orisa (the traditional deities of the Yoruba people), travel from all over the world to attend the annual Osun-Osogbo festival in August. Visitors include nationals of Brazil, Cuba, Trinidad, Grenada, and other nations in the Americas with a significant Yoruba cultural heritage . Annual traditional festivities and invocations of the Osun goddess are held along the banks of the river bearing her name into which – according to Yoruba Oratory traditions – she transformed.
The major sub-ethnic groups in Ọsun State are Ife, Ijesha, Oyo, Ibolo and Igbomina of the Yoruba people, although there are also people from other parts of Nigeria. Yoruba and English are the official languages. People of Osun State practice Islam, Christianity and their ancient religion, the traditional faith.
Osun, created from the old Oyo State in August 1991, has a large population of both Muslims and Christians. Among the famous religious leaders from Osun State is the London-based Muslim cleric Sheikh Dr. Abu-Abdullah Adelabu, who hailed from the state's capital city, Osogbo and Pastor (Dr.) Johnson Ade Odewale of Christ Apostolic church, Calvary Assembly from Odeomu, who is based in Boston, USA. The popular pastor E.A Adeboye hails from Ifewara in Osun state. The Osun State government claims to offer services to both Muslims and Christians in the state, especially through Pilgrims Welfare Boards. The ‘Land of Virtue’ recorded a total GDP of $7.28 billion and $2,076 per capita, while it has an HDI value of 0.512.

OYO STATE
Oyo State covers approximately an area of 28,454 square kilometers and is ranked 14th by size. The landscape consists of old hard rocks and dome shaped hills, which rise gently from about 500 meters in the southern part and reaching a height of about 1,219 metre above sea level in the northern part. Some principal rivers such as Ogun, Oba, Oyan, Otin, Ofiki, Sasa, Oni, Erinle and Osun river originate in this highland. Oyo State contains a number of natural features including the Old Oyo National Park – a location where that was earlier an habitat for the endangered African wild dog, Lycaon pictus.
It was formed in 1976 from Western State , and included Ọsun State , which was split off in 1991. Oyo State is homogenous, mainly inhabited by the Yoruba ethnic group who are primarily agrarian but have a predilection for living in high-density urban centers. The indigenes mainly comprise the Oyos, the Oke-Oguns, the Ibadans and the Ibarapas , all belonging to the Yoruba family and indigenous city in Africa. Ibadan had been the centre of administration of the old Western Region, Nigeria since the days of British colonial rule.
The Climate is equatorial, notably with dry and wet seasons with relatively high humidity. The dry season lasts from November to March while the wet season starts from April and ends in October. Average daily temperature ranges between 25 °C (77.0 °F) and 35 °C (95.0 °F), almost throughout the year.
Oyo is known for having a notorious streak of ‘firsts’; The first university in Nigeria is the University of Ibadan (established as a college of the University of London when it was founded in 1948, and later converted into an autonomous university in 1962). Other noteworthy institutions in the city include the University College Hospital; the first teaching hospital in Nigeria and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (lITA). Cocoa House was the first skyscraper built in Africa. The state is home to NTA Ibadan, the first television station in Africa, and the Obafemi Awolowo Stadium, a stadium with a capacity of 35,000.
Other major tourist attractions located in the state include: Agodi Botanical Garden, Ado-Awaye Suspended lake, Mapo Hall, University of lbadan Zoological Garden, Ido Cenotaph, Trans-Wonderland Amusement Park, Old Oyo National Park located in the historical site of the ancient capital of the famous old Oyo Empire, Iyamopo and Agbele Hill in Igbeti, Bowers Tower and the Cultural Centre, Mokola.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Oyo State. The climate in the state favours the cultivation of crops like; maize, yam, cassava, millet, rice, plantains, cocoa, palm produce, cashew etc. There are a number of government farm settlements in Ipapo, Ilora , Eruwa, Ogbomosho , Iresaadu, Ijaiye, Akufo and Lalupon. There is abundance of clay, kaolin and aquamarine. There are also vast cattle ranches at Saki, Fasola and Ibadan, a dairy farm at Monatan in Ibadan and the statewide Oyo State Agricultural Development Programme with headquarters at Saki. A number of international and federal agricultural establishment are located in the state. All these contributes in one way or another to build on an economy that boasted a GDP of $29.8 billion, $2,666 per capita and an HDI value of 0.440.

PLATEAU STATE
Plateau is the twelfth-largest state in Nigeria, covering an area of 30,913 square kilometers. While it is located approximately in the centre of the country, it is also geographically unique in Nigeria due to its boundaries of elevated hills surrounding the Jos Plateau its capital, and the entire plateau itself. It is surrounded by Bauchi State to the north-east, Kaduna State to the north-west, Nasarawa State to the south-west and Taraba State to the south-east.
Plateau State is celebrated as "The Home of Peace and Tourism". With natural formations of rocks, hills and waterfalls, it derives its name from the Jos Plateau and has a population of around 3.5 million people a recorded HDI value of 0.463. It is located between latitude 08°24'N and longitude 008°32' and 010°38' east. The state is named after the picturesque Jos Plateau , a mountainous area in the north of the state with captivating rock formations. Bare rocks are scattered across the grasslands , which cover the plateau. The altitude ranges from around 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) to a peak of 1,829 metres (6,001 ft) above sea level in the Shere Hills range near Jos. Years of tin and columbite mining have also left the area strewn with deep gorges and lakes .
Though situated in the tropical zone, a higher altitude means that Plateau State has a near temperate climate with an average temperature of between 13 and 22 °C. Harmattan winds cause the coldest weather between December and February. The warmest temperatures usually occur in the dry season months of March and April. The mean annual rainfall varies between 131.75 cm (52 in) in the southern part to 146 cm (57 in) on the Plateau. The highest rainfall is recorded during the wet season months of July and August. The average lower temperatures in Plateau State has led to a reduced incidence of some tropical diseases such as malaria. The Jos Plateau, makes it the source of many rivers in northern Nigeria including the Kaduna, Gongola, Hadejia and Yobe rivers.
The Jos Plateau is thought to be an area of younger granite which was intruded through an area of older granite rock, making up the surrounding states. These "younger" granites are thought to be about 160 million years old. This creates the unusual scenery of the Jos Plateau. There are numerous hillocks with gentle slopes emerging from the ground like mushrooms scattered with huge boulders. Also, volcanic activity 50 million years ago created numerous volcanoes and vast basaltic plateaus formed from lava flows. This also produces regions of mainly narrow and deep valleys and pediments (surfaces made smooth by erosion) from the middle of rounded hills with sheer rock faces. The phases of volcanic activities involved in the formation of Plateau State have made it one of the mineral rich states in the country.
Tin is still mined and processed on the plateau.
Plateau State is known as The Home of Peace and Tourism and there is plenty to see, not limited to; The Wildlife Safari Park which sits in the middle of 8 km 2 (3.09 sq. miles) of unspoiled savanna bush, about 4 km (2 mi) from Jos. It offers a wide variety of wild animals within easy viewing. These include Buffalos, Lions, baboons, derby elands , Rock pythons , crocodiles, chimpanzees, and Marabou storks. It was once home to the rare pygmy hippopotamus , which had been successfully bred in the 'hippo pool’. The park also boasts great, panoramic views of Jos city.
The National Museum in Jos was founded in 1952, and is recognised as one of the best in the country. It is renowned for its archeology and The Pottery Hall has an exceptional collection of finely crafted pottery from all over Nigeria. The museum boasts some fine specimens of Nok terracotta heads and artifacts dating from between 500 BC to 200 AD.
The Museum of Traditional Nigerian Architecture is adjacent, with life-size replicas of a variety of buildings, from the walls of Kano and to a Tiv village. In addition, articles of interest from colonial times relating to the railway and tin mining can be found on display. . Jos Zoo is located in Jos city, beside the museum. It has a good stock of animals, birds and reptiles and was established in 1957.
A recreational park named after a former governor of Plateau State, Chief Solomon Lar. Assop Falls is perhaps, the most notable of Nigeria's many waterfalls. Located at the edge of the Jos Plateau , about 40 miles (64 km) from Jos city, on the road to Abuja , this is a tourist stop for picnicking, swimming and enjoying the scenery. Assop Falls is also used as a filming location for local soap operas and advertisements.
Kurra Falls is an area some 77 kilometers southeast of Jos. It is the location of the state's first hydroelectric power station. It is a beautiful area of rocks hills, and lakes, ideal for boating, camping, and rock climbing. There is tourist accommodation available.
Wase Rock The wase rock is a striking dome-shaped inselberg which juts out of the ground to a height of 450 meters. It is located about 216 kilometers southeast of Jos near Wase town. It is one of the only five breeding places for the white pelican in Africa. Because of this, the government now protects about 321 acres (1.30 km 2 ) of land around the rock as a bird sanctuary and for wildlife development.
The Kerang highlands are located about 88 kilometres from Jos. These volcanic hills are the source of natural mountain springs, which supply the spring water company (SWAN).
The Shere Hills include some of the Plateau’s highest peaks. They are a range of hills to the east of Jos which have views of the city below, and attract mountain climbers and hill walkers. Riyom Rock is a rock formation, located 25 kilometers southwest of Jos, near Riyom town.
Pandam Game Reserve is a wildlife sanctuary. It is a protected region of natural habitat and is home to hippopotami, crocodiles, and snakes of all types. Local park rangers track local game on foot and guide people to the best viewing areas. This area is still virtually unspoiled by human contact. It offers sports fishing facilities and tourist accommodation is available.
Kahwang Rock Formation is a set of basalt rocks, located in Bangai village of Bachi District in Riyom Local Government of the state, the Kahwang rocks have received tourists from different parts of the state, the country at large and on occasions, from outside Nigeria, who visit the site to see for themselves the wonders of nature. This site is however, still awaiting the attention of the Plateau State Tourism Corporation to meet modern standards and to serve as another source of revenue generation to the state. Altogether, these sources have strung together a total of $5.15 billion and $1, 587 per capita.
Miango Rest House is a retreat and conference center located in Miango established by missionaries (SIM Nigeria) in 1914. It is located next to Kent Academy, a non-denominational missionary school. The Rest House provides visitors with plenty of opportunities to hike in the surrounding area. The property also features a man-made dam, a farm and is located at the foot of small hill (Mt. Sanderson) that provides a beautiful view of the area.
Plateau state has been adjusted to its present borders many times. Colonial manipulation was from a desire to protect the railway construction and guarantee safe passage of mined tin to the coast. There was also an attempt initially to create a province of largely non-Muslims under one Resident. Later alterations came from strong local desires for self-government.
The state has over forty ethno-linguistic groups. Some of the indigenous tribes in the state are the Berom, Afizere, Amo, Anaguta, Aten, Bogghom, Buji, Jipal, Chip, Irchip, Fier, Gashish, Goemai, Irigwe, Jarawa, Jukun, Kofyar (comprising Doemak, Kwalla, and Mernyang), Montol, Mushere, Mupun, Mwaghavul, Ngas, Piapung, Pyem, Ron-Kulere, Bache, Talet, Tarok, and Youm. These ethnic groups are predominantly farmers and have similar cultural and traditional ways of life. People from other parts of country have come to settle in Plateau State; these include the Tiv, Idoma, Igbo, Yoruba, Ibibio, Annang, Efik, Ijaw, and Bini.
Each ethnic group has its own distinct language, but as with the rest of the country, English is the official language in Plateau State; Hausa is also a common medium of communication and commerce as is the case in most parts of the North and Middle Belt of Nigeria.

RIVERS STATE
According to census data released in 2006, the state has a population of 5,198,716, making it the sixth-most populous state in the country. Its capital and largest city, Port Harcourt , is economically significant as the centre of Nigeria's oil industry. Rivers State is bounded on the South by the Atlantic Ocean, to the North by Imo, Abia and Anambra States, to the East by Akwa Ibom State, and to the West by Bayelsa and Delta states. It is home to many indigenous ethnic groups: Ogoni, Abua, Ekpeye, Ikwerre, Ibani Opobo, Eleme, Okrika, and Kalabari, Etche, Ogba, Engenni, Egbema, Obolo and others. The people from Rivers State are known as "Riverians".
The inland part of the state consists of tropical rainforest; towards the coast the typical Niger Delta environment features many mangrove swamps.
Rivers State, named after the many rivers that border its territory, was part of the Oil Rivers Protectorate from 1885 till 1893, when it became part of the Niger Coast Protectorate. In 1900 the region was merged with the chartered territories of the Royal Niger Company to form the colony of Southern Nigeria . The state was formed in 1967 with the split of the Eastern Region of Nigeria. In 1996 the state lost territory to form Bayelsa State .
Rivers State is a predominantly low-lying pluvial state in southern Nigeria, located in the eastern part of the Niger Delta on the oceanward extension of the Benue Trough . The inland part of the state consists of tropical rainforest , and towards the coast, the typical Niger Delta environment features many mangrove swamps. Rivers State has a total area of 11,077 km² (4,277 mi²), making it the 26th largest state in Nigeria. The land surface of Rivers State can be divided into three zones: freshwater swamps, mangrove swamps and coastal sand ridges. The freshwater zone extends north wards from the mangrove swamps. This land surface is generally less than 20m above sea level. As a lower Niger floodplain , it contains a greater silt and clay foundation and is more susceptible to perennial inundation by river floods. The floodplain's total thickness rises to about 45m in the northeast and over 9m in the beach ridge barrier zones to the southwest.
Rainfall is generally seasonal, variable, as well as heavy, and occurs between the months of March and October through November. The wet season peaks in July, lasting more than 290 days. The only dry months are January and February having little to no effect. Total annual rainfall decreases from about 4,700 mm (185 in) on the coast, to about 1,700 mm (67 in) in the extreme north. It is 4,698 mm (185 in) at Bonny along the coast and 1,862 mm (73 in) at Degema. For Port Harcourt, temperatures throughout the year are relatively constant with little variation throughout the course of the seasons. Average temperatures are typically between 25 °C−28 °C. Some parts of the state still receive up to 150 mm (6 in) of rainfall during the dry period. Relative humidity rarely dips below 60% and fluctuates between 90% and 100% for most of the year.
On coastal sand ridges, the soils are mostly sandy or sandy loams. Various crops are supported including coconut, oil palm, raffia palm and cocoyam. The drier upland region of Rivers State covers 61% of landmass while the riverine areas, with a relief range of 2m to 5m, take up 39%.
Rivers State has higher literacy rate compared to most states in the South South geopolitical zone. Its male literacy as of 2006 was 52.3% while female literacy rate was 47.7%. In the same survey, it ranked as 26th most extensive and the 6th most populous of all the states of Nigeria. A 2015 estimate put the number of residents of Rivers State at over 7 million, nearly triple the number recorded in 1991.
The state is famous for its vast reserves of crude oil and natural gas. It was perhaps the richest and most important section of the African zone of the British Empire and probably why it was coined ‘The Treasure Base of The Nation’. Rivers State has two major oil refineries, two major seaports, airports, and various industrial estates spread across the land. More than 60% of the country’s output of crude oil is produced in the state. Other natural resources found within its boundaries are silica sand, glass sand and clay. Rivers State has maintained its importance as a leading supplier of wealth to the nation for centuries. In 2007, the state ranked 2nd nationwide with a gross domestic product (GDP) of $21.07 billion and a per capita income of $3,965.
Prior to the discovery of oil in commercial quantity in 1951, Agriculture was the primary occupation of the people of Rivers State. Around the 19th century when the industrial revolution reached its peak in England, the area was then referred to as Oil Rivers Protectorate , this was due to its abundant palm oil and kernel which basically constituted the main revenue source of the country. In a sample survey carried out by the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, about 40% of the rural inhabitants were committed to farming in 1983. Rivers State is one of the leading states in the production of yam, cassava, cocoyam, maize, rice and beans. About 39% (760,000 hectares) of the state's total land mass, particularly in the upland area, is suitable for cultivation. Major cash crops produced are oil palm products, rubber, coconut, raffia palm and jute. Other crops grown for food include, vegetables, melon, pineapples, mango, pepper, banana and plantain. The fishing industry is an important sector in Rivers State. Besides being lucrative, fishing is also a favorite past time activity. There are approximately 270 species of fish existing; with many artisanal fishermen in the riverine areas. The state provides valuable seafoods such as crabs, oysters, shrimps and sea snails among others. Vertebrates like birds, mammals and reptiles are also found in the region.
Energy, and especially electricity is a key factor for economic growth. Rivers State has one of the nation's highest per capita energy consumption rates. As of 2012, it had a power generation capacity of 400 megawatts , a significant improvement over a meager 30 megawatts during the late nineties. Its energy sector is protected by the government through legislation and funding. It is overseen by the ministries of Power, Energy and Natural Resources. The state's oil-refining capacity is the biggest in the country, with more than 340,000 barrels of crude oil per day.
There's a vast untapped potential in the state for solar power . Interest in solar energy has been increasing but not much has been invested. Up to now, energy production is insufficient to meet demand, resulting in frequent power outages, slow manufacturing and business performance.

SOKOTO STATE
Being the seat of the former Sokoto Caliphate , the city is predominantly Muslim and an important seat of Islamic learning in Nigeria. The Sultan who heads the caliphate is effectively the spiritual leader of Nigerian Muslims. Hence, the state is known as ‘The Seat of The Caliphate’.
Sokoto State is in the dry Sahel, surrounded by sandy savannah and isolated hills. With an annual average temperature of 28.3 °C (82.9 °F), Sokoto is, on the whole, a very hot area. However, maximum daytime temperatures are for most of the year generally under 40 °C (104.0 °F) and the dryness makes the heat bearable. The warmest months are February to April when daytime temperatures can exceed 45 °C (113.0 °F). The rainy season is from June to October during which showers are a daily occurrence. The showers rarely last long and are a far cry from the regular torrential rain known in wet tropical regions. From late October to February, during the cold season , the climate is dominated by the Harmattan wind blowing Sahara dust over the land. The dust dims the sunlight thereby lowering temperatures significantly and also leading to the inconvenience of dust everywhere in houses.
Sokoto State is in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to the confluence of the Sokoto River and the Rima River. As of 2005 it has an estimated population of more than 4.2 million. Sokoto City is the modern-day capital of Sokoto State (and its predecessor, the Northwestern State). The region's lifeline for growing crops is the floodplains of the Sokoto-Rima river system, which are covered with rich alluvial soil. For the rest, the general dryness of the region allows for few crops, millet perhaps being the most abundant, complemented by rice, corn, other cereals and beans. Apart from tomatoes few vegetables grow in the region. The state brought forward a GDP of $4.82 billion and $1,274 per capita in 2007 and the lowest HDI value of 0.291 across all Nigerian states.
The name Sokoto (which is the modern/anglicised version of the local name, Sakkwato) is of Arabic origin, representing suk, "market". It is also known as Sakkwato, Birnin Shaihu da Bello or "Sokoto, Capital of Shaihu and Bello".
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(This post was last modified: 01-29-2019, 02:37 PM by Kalel1459.)

TARABA STATE
Taraba is a state in Nigeria , named after the Taraba River which traverses the southern part of the state. Taraba's capital is Jalingo. A striking historical fact to start with about the State is that it encompasses part of the Mambilla Region which is famed as the Bantu cradle, having been occupied for some five millennia to date (Schwartz, 1972; Zeitlyn & Connell, 2003).
The state was created out of the former Gongola State on 27 August 1991, by the military government of General Ibrahim Babangida and is bounded in the west by Nasarawa State and Benue State, northwest by Plateau State, north by Bauchi State and Gombe State, northeast by Adamawa State, east and south by Cameroon.
Taraba State lies largely within the middle of Nigeria and consists of undulating landscape dotted with a few mountainous features. These include the scenic and prominent Mambilla Plateau. The state lies largely within the tropical zone and has a vegetation of low forest in the southern part and grassland in the northern part. The Mambilla Plateau with an altitude of 1,800 meters (6000 ft) covering 54,473 square kilometers of land above sea level and has a temperate climate all year round.
The Benue, Donga, Taraba and Ibi are the main rivers in the state. They rise from the Cameroonian mountains, straining almost the entire length of the state in the North and South direction to link up with the River Niger.
The major occupation of the people of Taraba State is agriculture. Cash crops produced in the state include coffee, tea, groundnuts and cotton. Crops such as maize, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, and yam are also produced in commercial quantity. In addition, cattle, sheep and goats are reared in large numbers, especially on the Mambilla Plateau, and along the Benue and Taraba valleys. Similarly, the people undertake other livestock production activities like poultry production, rabbit breeding and pig farming in fairly large scale. Communities living on the banks of River Benue, River Taraba, River Donga and Ibi engage in fishing all year round while the state announced an HDI value of 0.461 in 2016. Other occupational activities such as pottery, cloth-weaving, dyeing, mat-making, carving, embroidery and blacksmithing are also carried out in various parts of the State. All of which helped the state to announce a GDP of $3.40 billion and $1,446 per capita at 2007.
The government has made concerted efforts to improve areas of tourist attractions like Mambilla Tourist Center, Gumpti Park and game reserve in Gashaka; and the Nwunyu Fishing festival in Ibi, which is usually held in April of each year where activities such as canoe racing, swimming competition and cultural dances are held. Other festivals are Purma of the Chamba in Donga, Takum and jibu culture dance in Bali, the Puje of Jukuns, Kuchecheb of Kutebs in Takum and Ussa, Kati of the Mambilla and host of others. Taraba is called "Nature's gift to the nation" as the state is rich and have many ethnic groups, including Jenjo, Jibana, Kuteb Chamba, Yandang, Mumuyes, Mambila, Wurkums, Fulanis, Jukun, Ichen, Tiv, Kaka, Panso, Kambu, Wawa, Vute, Tikari, Hausa and Ndola.

YOBE STATE
Yobe is a state located in Northeast Nigeria. A mainly agricultural state, it was created on August 27, 1991 and announced a total GDP of $2.01 billion and $843 per capita. Yobe state was carved out of Borno State and its capital is Damaturu.
While Yobe state is an agricultural state it also has rich fishing grounds and mineral deposits of gypsum in Fune LGA; kaolin and quartz. The state's agricultural products include gum arabic, groundnuts , beans , and cotton. The state is also said to have one of the largest cattle markets in West Africa, located in Potiskum.
‘The Pride of The Sahel’ borders four states, which are Bauchi, Borno, Gombe, and Jigawa State. It borders the Diffa Region and the Zinder Region to the north of the Republic of Niger, while it covers a total land area of 45,502 square kilometers. Because the state lies mainly in the dry savanna belt, conditions are hot and dry for most of the year, except in the southern part of the state which has a milder climate.
The major ethnic groups living in Yobe State are Fulani , while other ethnic communities include Ngizim, Karai-Karai, Bolewa, Bade, Hausa, Ngamo, Shuwa, Fulani Bura, Margi and Maga. All of which are among the 2,321,339 persons recorded during the 2006 population census and a relatively recent estimate of 2,757,000 persons of 2011.
The population is mainly Muslim . Sharia law is valid. However, there are Christians in the State, with the bulk of them from the Karai-Karai ethnic group. No Roman Catholic diocese has its seat in the state.

ZAMFARA STATE
Zamfara State is mainly populated by Hausa and Fulani people, with some members of Gwari, Kamuku, Kambari, Dukawa, Bussawa and Zabarma ethnic communities. Others include the Igbo, Yoruba, Kanuri, Nupe and Tiv. The people of Zamfara have over the years struggled for autonomy, it was not until 1996 that the then military administration of the Late General Sani Abacha detached the Zamfara State from Sokoto State . With an area of 38,418 square kilometres, it is bordered in the North by Niger republic , to the South by Kaduna State . In the east, it is bordered by Katsina State and to the West by Sokoto and Niger States. It has a population of 3,278,873 according to the 2006 census and contains fourteen local government areas.
The state capital is an important commercial center with a heterogeneous population of people from all over Nigeria. As in all major towns in Nigeria, all the major towns in Zamfara have a large population of other peoples from different parts of Nigeria.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people of the state and the central source of income. Irrigation is required for cereals and legumes hence its slogan "farming is our pride", this dependence helped them to realize a GDP worth $4.12 billion and $1,237. In 2009, gold mining became a greater source of income in Zamfara State as worldwide gold prices rose dramatically. High concentrations of lead in the ore from which gold was being extracted led to a lead poisoning epidemic in the state, requiring national and international intervention to remediate affected areas and provide medical care to children with severe lead poisoning.
Islam is the principal and major religion of the state. Zamfara was the first state in Nigeria to introduce Sharia law during the regime of Ahmad Sani Yerima , the former Governor of the state. Christianity also has many adherents. The original native religions also remain but they have the least number of followers. These religions are mainly practiced in ancient settlements like Dutsi and Kwatarkwashi.
English is the official language of the state. Other main languages spoken in Zamfara are Hausa, French, Fulfulde, Arabic; minority populations also speak languages like: Yoruba and Igbo.
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